The Indifferent Attitude of the Ibibio to the Biafran Enterprise in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 (Published)
The Nigerian civil war (6th July, 1967 – 15th January, 1970) that plunged the entire nation into chaos and devastation involved various ethnic nationalities. The conventional wisdom has been that the Ibibio fought on the side of the Biafra. This study examined the role the Ibibio played in the civil war. The study revealed that a larger proportion of the Ibibio population participated in the war on the side of the federal troops. Few that supported Biafra were former federal military officers and some in the civil service. The support to the federal troops by the Ibibio was as a result of their marginalization and oppression by the Igbo in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The Ibibio played a significant role in the collapse of the Republic of Biafra. The study had corrected the persistent misconception that the Ibibio fought on the side of Biafra. The study made use of primary and secondary sources, the primary sources included oral interview, archival materials and government publications while the secondary sources were mainly books, articles in journals and unpublished thesis.
Citation: Godwin Stephen Emah and Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola (2021) The Indifferent Attitude of the Ibibio to the Biafran Enterprise in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp.1-8,
Life-Distress and Work Burnout as Predictors of Organizational Reactions and Social-Emotional Stability of Nurses in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) (Implications for Covid-19 Health-Care Givers/Providers) (Published)
The study examined life-distress and work-burnout as predictors of nurses’ organizational reactions and social-emotional stability in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra). A cluster-sampled 230 General Hospitals nurses in Anambra State between 25-48 years and SD 5.33 participated, in which valid/reliable instruments, predictive cross-sectional designs, and multiple regression statistics were adopted. Findings were: Life-distress has relationship with organizational reactions of the nurses. Burnout does not have relationship with nurses’ organizational reactions. Life-distress does not have relationship with nurses’ emotional stability. Burnout adversely affects nurses’ emotional stability. Life-distress will not lead to nurses’ organizational reactions. Life-distress will not lead to nurses’ emotional stability. Burnout will not lead to nurses’ organizational reactions. Low burnout will lead to nurses’ emotional stability. Recommendations: While encouraging nurses to develop work competencies for coping with life-distress and burnout, complimentary healthy psycho-organizational enablers should be established in hospitals. This will assist health-care givers cope with pressure of managing COVID-19 pandemic.
Nigeria was artificially structured and named by the British. This nomenclatural coloration brought different ethnic nationalities together. These ethnic nationalities located in different parts of the country with distinct languages, history and cultural backgrounds and values, were made to coexist together under the same political unit. Little effort was made by the British to achieve political unity among these groups. With the first and second military coups in 1966, ethnicity became a major factor in Nigeria’s political lexicon. By 1967, Nigeria experienced a major conflict that almost dismembered the country. The war had serious economic consequences on Biafra as a result of the economic blockade and other stringent policies imposed on them by the Nigerian government. This paper therefore, interrogates issues emanating from the economic blocked and the challenges faced by Biafran citizens during this period. It examines survival strategies adopted by the Biafran government, Biafran citizens and efforts made by international humanitarian organisations to support the people. In the content analysis, this paper made use of both primary and secondary sources. The study identified both positive and negative survival efforts made by the people of Biafra.
Nigerian Police’s Aggressive Tendencies in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra): Roles of Psychological Well-Being, Empathy, and Emotional Intelligence (“Black Lives Matter” Campaign Implications) (Published)
The study examined Nigerian Police’s aggressive tendencies in Biafra (Eastern Nigeria). The objectives were to investigate whether psychological well-being, empathy, and emotional intelligence can reduce Police’s aggressive tendencies. Cluster and incidental sampled 230 Nigerian Police personnel participated. Valid/reliable aggression, psychological well-being, empathy, and emotional intelligence scales measured variables. Cross-sectional factorial design and multivariate regression were adopted. Findings were: Nigerian Police personnel possess very high aggressive tendency. Psychological well-being, empathy, and emotional intelligence of Nigerian Police personnel are very low, significantly leading to personnel’s high aggressive tendencies. Police personnel who are high in psychological well-being, empathy, and emotional intelligence will be low on aggressive tendencies. High level of psychological well-being significantly correlates with high empathy and emotional intelligence. Recommendations: Police personnel training, selection and development must strictly inculcate behavioural qualities of psychological well-being, empathy and emotional intelligence to reduce Police aggressive tendencies, implicated in the “Black Lives Matter” global campaign.
Potency of Inter-Personality and Family Demography in Predicting Other Personality Factors Of University Students in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) (Published)
The study examined “potency of inter-personality and family demography in predicting other personality factors in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra)”. Objective is the likelihood of people’s behaviours and family demography predicting their other behaviours. Students (n=101) of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus, Anambra State, Eastern-Nigeria (Biafra), sampled using cluster and incidental techniques participated. Big-Five Personality Inventory of convergent validity .97 and Split-half reliability .75 was used. Cross-sectional and correlational designs, plus multivariate hierarchical regression were adopted. Findings: “Agreeableness” significantly predicted “conscientiousness”, and “negative emotionality”; “Conscientiousness” significantly predicted “negative emotionality”, and “open-mindedness”; “Birth order” significantly predicted family number of children; “Number of children”, “family socio-economy”, and “Christian denomination” were substantially non-significant negative predictors of personality; finally “Extraversion” was non-significant positive predictors of personality. More cross-cultural studies on the topic are recommended. Christian religion should re-appraise their personality shaping roles to be functionally effective.
Psychosocial Implications of Fulani Herdsmen Religio-Organizational Terrorism in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) (Published)
The research examined psychosocial implications of Fulani herdsmen religio-organizational terrorism in Eastern-Nigeria (Biafra). Research participants were individuals or inhabitants affected by the Fulani herdsmen attacks. The research adopted analytical design. Instruments were secondary sources of information explored to collect facts. Fulani Herdsmen religio-organizational terrorism in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) is characterised by religious/ethnic cleansing, physical injury and starvation, genocide, abduction and sexual abuse. Psychosocial theories reviewed were psychoanalysis, cognitive dissonance, frustration-aggression, and terror-management. Findings of the research were that Fulani Herdsmen terrorism leads to the following psychological results – mental health challenge, withdrawal tendency, life frustration, and trauma; as well as the following social results – social anxiety, tribal hatred, high insecurity/crime, and family disintegration. Recommendations were made to intensify security effectiveness and efficiency, as well as political will and synergy to stop Fulani Herdsmen religio-organizational terrorism in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) in particular and Nigeria in general.
Organizational Effectiveness in Media Industry: A Study of Public and Private Media Organizations in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra). (Published)
The study examined “organizational effectiveness in media industry: A study of public and private media organizations in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra)”. Data were collected with valid/reliable “Organizational Effectiveness Model Inventory”, through multi-stage sampling using 2×4 factorial designs. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and descriptive statistics were used. Results at p<.05 found no significant differences for organization type and overall organization effectiveness. Contrarily, between-subjects tests were significant for organization type and “goal attainment” and “strategic constituency” organizational effectiveness, but not significant for organization type and the “system resources” and “internal process” organizational effectiveness. Private media organizations accounted between 13% – 17% and 14% – 18% organizational effectiveness for “goal attainment” and “strategic constituency” dimensions respectively than public media organizations. Findings’ major implication is that ownership of media industry does not influence archived organizational effectiveness. Improvement is recommended on the “system resources” and “internal process” organizational effectiveness.