Tag Archives: Barriers

Language Learning Barriers in the English Department at Ahad Rufiadah Female College in KKU (Published)

This paper is based on action research carried out in the English Department at Ahad Rufiadah Female College, in King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the central problems related to the learning teaching of English in Saudi Arabia. Some major barriers include: motivation, less exposure to English in day to day life, lack of teacher professional development programs. The research is conducted among the students of English of King Khalid University from different levels in addition to the teachers.

Keywords: Barriers, English in Saudi Arabia, English teaching, Motivation, and administrative barriers, components of curriculum, pedagogical barriers

Impact of early reading skills and teachers perceptions in English as a foreign language using ICT: Evidence from Vietnam (Published)

This study aimed to identify the early reading skills in English as a foreign language via information and communication technology in Vietnam as well as early childhood student teachers perception. Currently, information and communication technology and part of the teacher’s perception in the classroom practices performed an effective role in the learning aptitude of students and enhanced their reading skills in English as a foreign language. The nature of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected from 100 students and teachers from Hanoi National University of Education. The output of the study revealed that more students were agreed and had a positive perception towards the uses of information and communication technology in teaching reading in English as a foreign language. The results also indicated that teachers used the best skills and strategies to enhance children’s vocabulary in the classrooms. Lastly, findings indicated that students faced a lack of resources and technical support as significant barriers. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.

Keywords: Barriers, Early Childhood Education, Reading, Strategies., Students, Teachers’ Perception, Vietnam, and skills

English Language Learning in Adulthood: Perceptions of female adult learners (Published)

Adult learning in an EFL context is one of the most current issues researched in education. Just as the importance of learning a language is growing by the minute, the number of adult learners is enhancing too. The current study investigates the motivation of EFL adult Learners to go back to higher education, their preferred learning styles, and difficulties faced by them. The study consisted of 132 female participants from the College of Basic Education, who answered a 45 statements questionnaire. The answers were analysed quantitatively through SPSS to find the means, frequencies, and significance in correlation with several independent variables. It has been found that female adult learners have mixed intrinsic and extrinsic motives towards learning EFL, and while learning styles varied, institutional barriers such as poor facilities, strict regulations and traditional teaching practice appear to be the greatest difficulties to learners. The study is concluded with several suggestions that aim to provide effective adult EFL learning.

Keywords: Barriers, EFL, Learning strategies, PLS, adult-learner, motivations

Psychological Barriers to Satisfaction of Reproductive Health Needs of the Age-Cohort 10-24 Years in Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study sought to investigate psychological barriers to satisfaction of reproductive health needs of the age-cohort 10-24 years in Imo State, Nigeria. To facilitate the realization of this objective, three research questions and two hypotheses were postulated for the study. The population for the study was 93,250 which comprised students in all the secondary and tertiary institutions in Imo State. Using the multi-stage sampling procedure, a sample size of 5010 students was drawn. The sample size represented 5 per cent of the population. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The instrument used for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire, known as PSYBARNAC which contained 13 items in two sections A and B. Section ‘A’ contained the personal data (age and gender) of respondents while section ‘B’ contained the psychological barriers to satisfaction of reproductive health needs. The instrument was validated by a jury of three drawn from the Department of Physical and Health Education, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. The reliability co-efficient of 0.88 was derived using Pearson Product Moment Reliability co-efficient. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentage and mean in answering the research questions, while inferential statistic of Z-test and ANOVA were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that young persons are faced with psychological barriers to reproductive health needs. The findings further revealed that the psychological barriers experienced by age cohort 10-24 years vary by age and gender. Based on the findings of the study, the investigators recommended that, the government through the Ministry of Education and Health should package a sex education programme for young persons of varying age and other status (gender, sexual activity). This is to meet their unique reproductive health needs; the government, NGOs and communities should also develop appropriate strategies to up-date the home (parents and older siblings) with the reproductive health needs of youths and barriers to such needs. This will equip them to join effectively in providing and supporting the young persons in satisfying their reproductive health needs; health stakeholders should organize reproductive health programmes which should be comprehensive, well located and attractive to youths in terms of cost and relationship. This will motivate youths to participate in such programmes; reproductive health service providers should be trained by the government to help them evaluate their own values and understanding of needs of those they are serving, so as to ensure that all young people are treated with dignity and receive comprehensive reproductive health services that address their reproductive health needs; service providers and parents should improve on their interpersonal relationship with young person; this will help to reduce the psychological barriers that hinder young persons from accessing reproductive health services, as well as, make the services more attractive to young persons.

Keywords: Age And Gender, Barriers, Needs Psychological, Reproductive Health

Evaluation of Barriers to the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (Ebp) Among Nurses Working At Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (Fetha Ii). (Published)

This research study was designed to evaluate the barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice among nurses working at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, (FETHA II). The objectives of the study were to; ascertain EBP knowledge among nurses; identify their sources of knowledge; ascertain their extent of EBP implementation; and to identify their perceived barriers to reviewing research reports and changing practice on the basis of current best evidence. Four research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed and summarized. A descriptive survey method was used in carrying out the study. The study sample consisted of 90 registered nurses selected from a target population of 226, using a stratified random sampling technique. Instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The instrument was validated by the project supervisor and four other health promotion experts in other Nigerian universities. Reliability of the instrument was established by exposing the structured questionnaire twice to a pilot study group of 10 nurses at FETHA 2. Major findings from collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and tables which showed that; nurses face a lot of barriers to using evidence in practice which include; poor knowledge of EBP  as a concept, use of intuition and reliance upon past training experience in the delivery of care, time constraint, unsupportive staff and management, lack of authority to change practice, among many others .The following recommendations were made; the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN), should incorporate EBP teachings into the curricula of various nursing training institutions, organising of workshops and seminars on EBP concepts, formation of EBP study clubs, updating libraries and provision of internet access by Nigerian Teaching Hospitals.

Keywords: Barriers, Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation, Nurses

Barriers of Access to Finance in Nepal (Published)

Access to finance has several meanings, reasons and consequences. Normally, access to finance has two facets, i.e. at household or individual level and business firm level (Beck and Kunt, 2008; World Bank, 2009) to reach in financial institutions to consume financial services. Many policies are formulated and practiced in Nepal to increase access to finance, still the situation is poor. Number of financial intermediaries are increased since the decades, however a larger segment of people are out of financial mainstream. Still, the people do not know about financial services, about service centers and doing business; i.e. financial literacy is poor. From this, a consistent and sustainable access of them to financial services is questionable. Access of people in financial services or access of service providers to people is a ‘double barrel’ question. Similarly, why the poor access among the efforts to increase it since some decades in Nepal is a big question. The paper presents some of the reasons for the poor access of people in financial services. The paper is based on analytical design with some secondary data.

Keywords: Access To Finance, Barriers, Development, Financial Inclusion, Financial literacy

Barriers to Contraceptive Use among Rural Farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

The study ascertained the barriers to contraceptive use among rural farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data obtained from one hundred and sixty rural farmers, using multi-stage sampling procedure, were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means and ranks. Results show that 51.3% of the respondents, with an average age of 40 years, were females and 73.1% were married; majority of the respondents (96.2%) had formal education with an average monthly income of N28, 500.50 and an average of 36 years of farming experience. Findings also show that the most utilized contraceptive methods by the rural farmers were barrier methods (condoms, diaphragm), hormonal contraceptives (pills) and abstinence; lack of information on effective use of contraceptives, perceived negative side effects of contraceptive use and lack of required skills for effective use of contraceptives were the most severe barriers to contraceptive use faced by the respondents. The State Government, Non-Governmental Organizations, Community-based organizations as well as other development agencies in Akwa Ibom State should organize enlightenment programmes on contraceptive use specifically targeted at rural areas of the State in order to help overcome the major barriers to contraceptive use faced by rural farmers in the State.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State, Barriers, Contraceptive, rural farmers


This work focused on “Environmental Barriers and Job Placement of the Physically Challenged in Work Organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria”. The purpose was to investigate the extent to which the physical environment of work organizations posses as a challenged for the inclusion to the physically challenged in work organizations six selected organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria. The pilot survey, simple random sampling techniques, questionnaires were employed to select respondents. Primary and secondary data were used in the collection of data. Five research questions were raised. In analyzing data that addressed the research questions the descriptive method of analysis was used. The findings of the study includes: lack of policies and practices; Negative public perception; barriers of physical environment; discrimination; lack of records and on the job challenge. Based on these findings the study recommends among others that there should be domestic policies backed by appropriate legislation which will favour employment of the physically challenged; elaborate elimination of physical environmental barriers to enhance access to employment; promotion and sensitization of advocacy groups to enhance the protection of the rights and privileges of the physically challenged.

Keywords: Barriers, Environment, Job Placement, Nigeria, Physically Challenged, Rivers State, Workplace


Keywords: Barriers, Egyptian, Improving, Managing, Quality, instrument


Literature shows that many curriculum reforms in higher education institutions fail because curriculum change sponsors fail to identify and plan effectively and proactively to deal with barriers to curriculum change as well as to harness enablers. One such critical reason why curriculum change sponsors such as academic middle managers fail to adequately plan to effectively deal with challenges to curriculum change as well as to maximize on the opportunities provided by enablers to successful curriculum change has been shown in literature as lack of knowledge. The above claim is further supported in other researches which show that for the majority of curriculum users, their understanding of curriculum and curriculum change is still at neophyte stage. This study therefore, supported by literature, wishes to lay claim to the fact that there are as many enablers as there are challenges to successful curriculum change in higher education which academic middle managers (AMMs) can take note of when planning as well as implementing curriculum change. In laying the foundation for this claim, this study examines the various enablers and challenges to successful curriculum change in higher education

Keywords: Barriers, curriculum change, effective leadership, enablers, team culture

E-Commerce and Global Postal Network -Opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises (Published)

This article will explain what the challenges are in the global postal network (GPN). GPN play a significant role in the global supply chain and try to fulfill the needs of SMEs while entering foreign markets. Postal operators with their networks help to facilitate international trade to deliver parcels, packages, partnering with express, courier services embracing mobile and online technologies, provide financial services etc. The few examples will be mentioned how the post can help to facilitate business for SMEs, because GPN is an integral part of the overall e-commerce today. Some innovative ideas will be presented how the national posts are trying to support especially e-business not only on the local market but also abroad.

Keywords: Barriers, E-Commerce, Global Postal Chain, Global Supply Chain, Small and Medium Enterprises

Knowledge and Barriers in Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Kano State, Northern Nigeria (Published)

Use of maternal health care in most African countries has been associated with several socioeconomic, cultural and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. Similar previous study in Kano showed that 64% of women with severe obstetric morbidity identified at different hospitals in Kano state Nigeria were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. This cross-sectional descriptive study explored knowledge and Utilization of maternal health services among Urban and Rural reproductive women. The views of (n=1000) married women within the age group of 14 to 49years were selected randomly both in urban and rural areas. In a two point scale (good, poor), Knowledge of maternal health facilities and services generally show that urban and rural had extremely good knowledge of maternal health service and programs provided by the government with 99.0% of urban and 82.4% of rural. While overall, only 63.4% and 51.4% both urban and rural utilize health facilities and its programs. There was a statistically significant association between the respondents a level of education, income, age and their knowledge score (p = 0.005) for both urban and rural: knowledge of maternal health facilities was higher among those with formal education, high income and younger respondents.

Keywords: Barriers, Knowledge, Maternal Healthcare, Utilization