Enhancement of the Nutritive and Sensory Characteristics of Bambara Nut Steamed Paste (Okpa) By Process Modification (Published)
This work assessed the enhancement of the nutritive and sensory characteristics of Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea) steamed paste (okpa) by process modification. Mature seeds of bambara nut were cleaned and divided into six portions. One portion was milled and sieved; the second portion was further divided into two sub-portions, milled and sieved; the third portion was fermented by steeping in fresh water (25±20C) for 48h, oven-dried (600C), milled and sieved. The fourth was allowed to sprout after 48h, oven-dried (600C), milled and sieved while the fifth and sixth portions were boiled for 8h and oven-dried; and roasted till brown, milled and sieved respectively. Each flour was reconstituted with potable water, with ingredients added and processed into steamed paste by cooking for 1h., except for the 2 sub-portions in the second portion to which 48h and 72h fermented ugba was incorporated and similarly steamed into okpa. The samples were subjected to proximate and sensory evaluations. A generally significant (P<0.05) increase was obtained in crude protein, ash, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate contents, respectively; from the control steamed paste (CSP), 4.04g100g-1 to 6.66g100g-1 in the fermented steamed paste (FSP); 2.96g100g-1to 4.288g/100-1 in Bambara nut + 72h fermented steamed paste (UFSP2); 0.95g100-1 to 9.55g100g-1 in the boiled steamed paste (BSP); 14.80g100-1 to 20.60g100g-1 in BSP; and 13.95g-1 to 20.49g100g-1 in roasted steamed paste (RSP).The germinated steamed paste (GSP) had the highest moisture content (68.85%) while BSP had the least (51.90%) UFSP2 was the most highly acceptable sample. Process modification of Bambara groundnut produced okpa samples with enhanced nutritive value. While FSP had the highest protein content, UFSP2 had the highest mineral content, the least fat and the most highly acceptable.
Keywords: Characteristics, Enhancement, Nutritive, Sensory, bambaranut