Tag Archives: Bacteria

Bacterialogical and Parasitological Assessment of Fresh Meat Marketed In Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

The bacteriological and parasitological assessment of some fresh meat marketed in Owerri, Nigeria was carried out using standard bacteriological and parasitological methods. The meat samples used for the study were flesh, towel, intestine and liver from goat, pork and chicken. There was no fungal and Salmonella – Shigella count in all the samples. The presence of Staphylococcus count was obtained in fresh goat meat and the viable bacterial counts ranged from 5.0× 105cfi/ml to 8.0× 106 cfu/ml while the total coliform counts ranged from 1.0× 105(cfu/ml to 4.0×106cfu/ml. The bacterial isolates obtained were: Staphylococcus aereus, Micrococcus species, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Corynebacterium species, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Bacillus species and Escherichia coli with Micrococcus species showing the highest occurrence. Among the parasites identified, Taenia spp had the highest occurrence. There is need for proper hygienic practices to be observed by the butchers in addition to beefing up the activities of Consumers Protection Council(CPC) to ensure the safety of meat available for public consumption

Keywords: Assessment, Bacteria, Fresh meat, Oocysts, Owerri, Parasites

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Guiera Senegalensis and Prosopis Africana Leave Extract on Some Bacterial Pathogens (Published)

The bioactive components of the leaves of Guiera senegalensis and Prosopis africana were extracted using ethanol, aqueous and crude extraction methods. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids, while glycosides and alkaloids were absent in P. africana and G. senegalensis respectively. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of G. senegalensis showed 1.352mg/100g of flavonoids and 14.59mg/100g of phenols. Prosopis africana quantitatively showed 3.041mg/100g flavonoids and 10.22mg/100g phenol content. The various extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity using agar diffusion methods of susceptibility testing against the test organisms. The ethanolic extract of Prosopis africana demonstrated the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi (4.7mm, 4mm and 4mm  zones of inhibition respectively) while the least activity was demonstrated by  aqueous extract against Escherichia coli (1mm inhibition zone). The ethanolic extract of G. senegalensis also inhibited Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with (3.5mm, 3mm, and 2.8mm of zones of inhibitions respectively). The crude and the aqueous extracts of both plants showed lower zones of inhibition against all the three organisms. This study shows that the use of G. senegalensis and Prosopis africana leaves as traditional medicine has a lot of potential in treatment of antimicrobial infections with further standardization.

Keywords: Antimicrobial efficacy, Bacteria, Inhibition, Phytochemical, leave extract

Nisin Peptide as Promising Natural Food Preservative for Food (Published)

Sodium  Nitrite  has  been  widely  use  as  preservative  for  meats  and  fish  Products, but  in recent  years  there  has  been  considerable  interest  for  searching  about  natural  Food  preservatives  like  Nisin  peptide. The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  compare  the  inhibitory  effect  of  two preservatives  were  Sodium  Nitrite  and  Nisin  peptide  separately  against  Staphylococcus  Aureus  (Staph. A),  Escherichia  coli (E. coli),  and  Candida  Albicans  (C. Albicans)  in  Mueller Hinton  Broth  (MHB)  at  three  different  pH  (7.0- 6.0- 5.5).  After  that  the  combination  effect  between  Sodium  Nitrite  and  Nisin  was  studied  in  MHB  at  optimum  pH  that  was  concluded from  the  previous  stage. Minimal  Inhibitory  Concentrations  (MIC)  and  Minimal  Bactericidal Concentrations  (MBC)  of  both  preservatives  were  evaluated. FIC values (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration) were calculated   after combination between them. The  results  showed  that  MIC  values  of  Sodium  Nitrite  against  S. Aureus,  E. coli  and  C. albicans  at  pH 5.5  were  (500- 200- 500)  ppm  respectively  and   MIC  values  of  Nisin  were (100- 350- 500)  ppm respectively, while  MIC  values  of  the  combination  (Sodium  Nitrite+ Nisin)  against  S. A, E. coli  and  C. albicans were  (50- 25- 100)  ppm  respectively  and  FIC  values of  them  were  (0.39- 0.15- 0.30).  On  the  other  hand  The  results  showed  that  simultaneous  use  of  Nisin  with  sodium  nitrite  reduced  MIC  and  MBC  of  this  compound  against  bacteria and  fungi  Significantly  consequently, this  synergistic  effect  of  Nisin  could  promote  in  the  Future   to  reduce  of  the  using  of  Sodium  Nitrite  in  food  industry.

Keywords: Bacteria, FIC., MIC, Nisin, Synergism

Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection and Study their Susceptibility to Antibiotics at Asuq- Alshukh Hospital in the Province of Dhi -Qar (Published)

This study of urinary tract infection has been planned to isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens. The urine were collected from 60 patients for a Suq- Alshukh hospitals they were including 23 male and 37 female . Patients aged between 15 to 70 years . Urine culture had been done for all the 60 patients who were included in this study . Only 45 patients had positive urine culture they were including 15 male and 30 females . The most common organism was Esherichia coli which was isolated from 14 patients with percentage of 31.1% . E.coli was the most prevalent followed by Proteus mirabilis 22.2% (10), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15.5% (7) , Staphylococcus aureus 11.1% (5) , Klebsiella pneumonia 13.3 % (4) , Staph.saprophyticus 4.4% (2) and Serratia marcescenes 2.2% (1) . The antibiotics susceptibility test was done for all isolates to 8 antibiotics , Amikacin was more antibiotic that effect on all kinds of isolate , the sensitivity of isolates to this antibiotic was registered (95.7%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (80.7%) , while the highest resistant of all isolates was to Amoxicillin , it was registered (9.2%) .

Keywords: Antibiotics, Asuq-Alshukh Hospital, Bacteria, UTI

Damage Caused By Spoilage Bacteria to the Structure of Cattle Hides and Sheep Skins (Published)

Recently greater attention has been given to hides and skins because of the added value of processing them into leather and leather products. The study aimed to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria associated with damage to raw cattle hides and sheep/goat skins in Sudan. Probably due to poor hygiene and poor conditions in the slaughterhouses a total of 414 organisms were isolated (379 Gram- positive and 35 Gram- negative bacteria) from fresh and washed hides and skins in the slaughterhouse, salted and dried hides and skins in warehouses where these was a delay in curing and the absence of bactericides. Other bacterial species were isolated from raw hides and skins which were delivered without treatment to the tannery. Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. were the predominant microorganisms isolated. Histological examination of the putrefied areas showed that the epidermis became thin without cellular structure and appeared ribbon-like and detached from the dermis whilst the dermis became loose. The bacterial damage was clear in raw hides and skins delivered without treatment and had lesions of putrefaction with St. equorum, St. gallinarum, Dermacoccus nishinomiyaenesis, Gardnerella vaginalis being isolated from putrefied hides and skins for the first time. Significance and impact. The bacterial activity affected skins and hides structures. The epidermis and dermis layers, which are valuable tissues in the leather industry and determine the quality of the leather were severely affected.

Keywords: Bacteria, Hides, Histology, Putrefaction, Skins

THE EFFECT OF ALKALOIDS AND FLAVONOIDS EXTRACTS OF VITEX DONIANA SEED ON SOME MICROORGANISMS (Published)

This research studied the effects of alkaloids and flavonoids extracts of Vitex doniana seeds on some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The bacteria are: P. aeroginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureaus, E. coli and S. typhi. The fungi are C. albican and A. niger. It was found that the alkaloid and flavonoid extracts of the seed inhibited the above named five bacteria successfully. The alkaloid and flavonoids extracts of the seed cannot inhibit the above mentioned two test fungi. Alkaloid and flavonoids extracts of V. doniana seeds are antibiotic in action. This knowledge can help the new generation pharmacists in their formulation of new drugs to improve health care delivery.

Keywords: Alkaloids, Bacteria, Flavonoids, Vitex doniana seed, fungi, microorganisms and extracts.

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF TWO NIGERIAN FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC DRINKS (PALMWINE AND BURUKUTU) IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

Palm wine samples were collected from five (5) different towns in Ekiti State while burukutu were also collected from three different towns in Ekiti State. The pH of the palm wine ranged from 4.49 in sample PWB (Are- Ekiti) to 5.23 in PWD (Ikere-Ekiti). In the chemical analysis, total alkalinity ranged from 0.03% in PWA (Ado-Ekiti), PWD and PWE (Ikole-Ekiti) to 0.06 in PWB. Total solids ranged from 10.670 Brix in PWA to 16.57 in sample PWC (Ifaki-Ekiti). Total reducing sugar ranged from 10.81% in sample PWA to 18.94% in PWC while protein ranged from 0.31mg/l in PWE to 0.34mg/l in PWB and PWC. In the total bacteria count (TBC), it ranged from 0.9 X 105 cfu/ml in PWC to 2.3 X 105 cfu/ml in PWA. TBC in burukutu has the highest value of 8 in sample BK (Ado -Ekiti) and lowest of 4.9 in sample BM (Ikere-Ekiti). Total yeast count, ranged from 1 in PWB to 6 in PWD. For the burukutu sample, it ranged from 4 in sample BL (Ikole-Ekiti) to 88 in BK. In all, 2.9 x 10 microorganisms were isolated from the palm wine samples with 1.2 x 10 yeast cells and 1.7 x 10 bacteria cells. From the microbial load on the samples, 5 bacteria genera were isolated. Consumption of these alcoholic beverages are therefore not safe, as contaminants have been observed in the drinks and these contaminants and pathogens are dangerous as consumption can result to health hazard .

Keywords: Bacteria, Burukutu, Wine, Yeast and Alcoholic Beverages

MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF TWO NIGERIAN FERMENTED ALCOHOLIC DRINKS (PALMWINE AND BURUKUTU) IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

Palm wine samples were collected from five (5) different towns in Ekiti State while burukutu were also collected from three different towns in Ekiti State. The pH of the palm wine ranged from 4.49 in sample PWB (Are- Ekiti) to 5.23 in PWD (Ikere-Ekiti). In the chemical analysis, total alkalinity ranged from 0.03% in PWA (Ado-Ekiti), PWD and PWE (Ikole-Ekiti) to 0.06 in PWB. Total solids ranged from 10.670 Brix in PWA to 16.57 in sample PWC (Ifaki-Ekiti). Total reducing sugar ranged from 10.81% in sample PWA to 18.94% in PWC while protein ranged from 0.31mg/l in PWE to 0.34mg/l in PWB and PWC. In the total bacteria count (TBC), it ranged from 0.9 X 105 cfu/ml in PWC to 2.3 X 105 cfu/ml in PWA. TBC in burukutu has the highest value of 8 in sample BK (Ado -Ekiti) and lowest of 4.9 in sample BM (Ikere-Ekiti). Total yeast count, ranged from 1 in PWB to 6 in PWD. For the burukutu sample, it ranged from 4 in sample BL (Ikole-Ekiti) to 88 in BK. In all, 2.9 x 10 microorganisms were isolated from the palm wine samples with 1.2 x 10 yeast cells and 1.7 x 10 bacteria cells. From the microbial load on the samples, 5 bacteria genera were isolated. Consumption of these alcoholic beverages are therefore not safe, as contaminants have been observed in the drinks and these contaminants and pathogens are dangerous as consumption can result to health hazard

Keywords: Alcoholic Beverages, Bacteria, Burukutu, Palmwine, Yeast