The Effect Of Country-Of-Origin, Consumer Characteristics And Attitudes On Consumer Behaviour Towards Foreign Clothing Brands In Nairobi, Kenya (Published)
The country-of-origin (COO) concept refers to the country where a particular product is made and is anchored on the international marketing theory. The broad objective of this pioneering study was to determine the effect of COO, consumer characteristics and attitudes on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in Nairobi, Kenya. The specific objectives were to: assess the influence of COO on consumer behaviour; determine the influence of country-of-origin on consumer attitudes; establish the influence of consumer attitudes on consumer behaviour; assess the influence of consumer characteristics on consumer behaviour; determine the extent to which consumer characteristics moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour; assess the degree to which consumer attitudes influence the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour and; establish the extent to which the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands is influenced by consumer characteristics and by consumer attitudes. The pertinent hypotheses were derived from the objectives. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design which facilitated testing of hypotheses quantitatively and ensured that conclusions about the COO research problem were based on the information provided at the time of the research. Primary data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires from a study population comprising 384 consumers of clothing brands across Nairobi County, Kenya. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study established that country-of-origin influences consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands and there was a significant association among the two. The findings also revealed that consumer characteristics directly influence consumer behaviour and also moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour. There was a significant relationship between consumer characteristics and consumer behaviour. Furthermore, the results showed that consumer attitudes strongly mediate the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour, and there was a significant association among the two. Finally, the joint effect of COO, consumer characteristics and consumer attitudes was greater than the individual effects of the independent, mediating and moderating variables on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands. The combined effect of these variables on consumer behaviour was also found to be statistically significant. The study has made contribution to theory, policy and practice in relation to consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in general and specific influence of country-of-origin, consumer attitudes and consumer characteristics. The selection of the study variables was not exhaustive. The use of a relatively small population, use of a descriptive cross-sectional research design and testing of COO as a single concept put constraints on the generalizability of the results. The use of quantitative methods alone is also restrictive. Future research should seek to address these limitations by inclusion of the additional factors; use of a longitudinal and broader research design and; incorporation of qualitative research techniques such as focus group sessions and structured interviews.
LANGUAGE CHOICE AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDES IN A MULTILINGUAL ARAB CANADIAN COMMUNITY: QUEBEC– CANADA: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY (Published)
This study aimed at investigating language choice among Arabs of Quebec– Canada. It also explored Arabs’ attitudes towards Arabic, French and English in particular and factors involved in using these languages. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers selected a sample that consisted of (100) Arab respondents who reside in Quebec– Canada, covering different age ranges, gender, and educational backgrounds. The instrument of the study was a sociolinguistic questionnaire. Results showed that Arabs of Quebec– Canada have positive attitudes towards Arabic, English and French. They freely use their Arabic language in the domain of home and with family members, in worship places and when listening to the radio. In addition, they use English and French in Governmental offices and formal applications and in educational institutions. Results also showed that Arabs of Quebec mix these languages in the domain of neighborhood, with friends, and media.
THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTITUDES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN KCSE ECONOMICS EXAMINATION (Published)
Economics is a very important subject in the school curriculum. However, since the adoption of 8-4-4 system of education in Kenya in the mid 1980’s, the number of students registering for economics in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) has been steadily dropping. This has been attributed to the unsatisfactory student’s performance in KCSE economics. This paper sought to examine the effect of teacher characteristics and attitudes on student performance in Economics subject. The study is a field based survey conducted in secondary schools offering economics in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Simple purposive sampling was used to get the representative sample for the study. The representative sample, constituted all the fourth form students of economics in all the secondary schools in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya, Inspectors of schools in districts where economics was being offered and teachers from the schools where the subject was offered. A total of 187 students, 32 teachers and 4 district inspectors took part. Data was collected from the sample using questionnaires. The data collected was analysed using Excel software program. Basic statistical techniques were used to analyse various items in the questionnaire. These include calculating the averages, frequencies, percentages and totals. These statistical techniques were used to make comparisons in the various data collected. Conclusions on the variables analysed were finally drawn from these comparisons. The study concludes that teachers have a positive attitude towards the subject thus poor performance could be attributed to other factors than teacher attitudes. The author expects that teachers of economics will benefit from the findings on the identified factors that influence the instructional procedures and strategies and hence improve the performance of the subject in the national examinations.