Tag Archives: Attitudes

Influence of Home Background on Nigerian Students’ Academic Achievement in O’ Level English (Published)

This work investigated the influence of students’ home background on their academic achievement in O’ Level English in Nigeria, using Oyo State secondary schools as a case study. In the selection of the respondents, multistage sampling approach was adopted. Stratified sampling technique was used to select four schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to select students on the basis of home background. Only students from illiterate homes were selected from the public schools while only students from literate homes were selected from private schools. Two private and two public schools were selected from each of the zones making a total of ten private and ten public schools in all. Random sampling technique was used to select twenty students from each of the twenty selected schools, making a total of four hundred respondents in all. Three research hypotheses were raised. Questionnaire was used to gather information on the availability of materials on English language on the basis of home background. It was also used to gather information on students’ attitudes to English language on the basis of home background. Fifty multiple test items were used to test students’ level of achievement in English language based on home background. Chi-square was used to analyse all the hypotheses set. The findings showed that there was a significant difference in the availability of reading materials on English; there was a significant difference in the attitudes of students to English and there was a significant difference in students’ achievement in O’ Level English on the basis of home background. Recommendations were made to the stakeholders. 

Keywords: Achievement, Attitudes, O Level English, home background

Investigating EFL Student Teachers’ Learning Performance, Attitudes and Peer Interaction in Flipped Classroom (Published)

This mixed–method research design examined the influence of Flipped Classroom Intervention (FCI) on the learning performance of pre-service EFL female teachers, along with their related attitudes and peer interaction. The study sample consisted of thirty-eight pre-service EFL females in Saudi Arabia. The research design was a one-group pre-posttest, with data collected by means of twenty items gathered pre- and post-test to measure learning performance. In addition, the attitudes and peer interaction of the participants were explored through the use of two Likert-scale questionnaires and their reflections were examined by means of semi-structured focus-group interviews. The results of the paired-samples t-test revealed a statistically significant improvement in participants’ learning performance (t=-7.459, p<.0005) in favor of the post-test. The results also revealed that the participants held positive attitudes towards FCI for all items within the three dimensions, giving highly confident responses regarding their views on peer interaction during FCI. Similarly, the findings of the semi-structured focus-group interviews revealed that FCI proved effective in raising the levels of: (1) the teacher’s performance; (2) the classroom environment; (3) teamwork; and (4) the students’ learning skills.

Keywords: Attitudes, Flipped classroom, Pre-Service EFL Teachers, learning performance, peer-interaction

Current Attitudes of Jordanian Associated Nursing and Midwifery Students towards Their Future Professions (Published)

Background and Objective: Students’ attitudes influence their future career path selection which is of a significant interest to educators and professional agencies the objective of this study is to explore the attitudes of associated nursing and midwifery students towards their professions in Al-Balqa Applied University in the Northern District Colleges. Methods: The study researchers followed the style of analytical descriptive which provides accurate results, given that the study sample was derived from the community itself. A Five-point Likert Scale was used ( Strongly agree-five points / agree-four points / do not know-three points / disagree-two points / strongly disagree-one point). The eligible questionnaires for the analysis were 232. Thus, the overall response rate was 92.8%. Results: two third (69.4%) of students were from  Nusaiba college. All of them are midwifery students, whereas the lowest percentage (7.8%) of participants was from Ajloun College. The number of midwives students (176, 75, 9%), while the number of associated nursing students was (56, 24.1%). Nearly half of the participants (49.6%) were in the first year of academic level, while reached a percentage of   (21.1%) for third year academic level. More than half of the participants’ (56.5%) academic achievement was good, while lowest percentage (9.0%) was for accepted. Nearly two-thirds (65.9%) have relatives in the nursing profession, while (34.1%) have no relatives in the nursing profession. Finally, (69.4%) practiced in the clinical area, while (30.6%) of participants did not practice in the clinical area. No statically significant differences for students attitudes towards the profession, students attitudes towards personal attributes and students attitudes towards the profession, but there is a statistically significant difference at the level of significance (𝛼≤0.05) for all domains and the domain as a whole according to the clinical practice. Conclusion: The majority of Jordanian students had a positive attitude towards their professions in nursing and midwifery.  Jordan Ministry of Health, university educators and nursing regulatory bodies (JNC and JNMC) should develop nursing education programs, promote nursing strategies (guidance and counseling) and provide financial stability to promote these attitudes toward these professions.

Keywords: Associated Nursing, Attitudes, Midwifery, The Nursing Profession

Attitudes of Almajmaah University Undergraduate Nursing Students toward Older People’s Care (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes of Saudi Arabia nursing students towards care for older people and, their intention and willingness to provide care for this population in the future. Nursing students at a Saudi Arabian university were sampled for the study. A cross section of the students (n = 250) completed the modified Kogan’s ‘Attitudes towards Older People Scale’ (1960) and data was analysed using SPSS (v.20). Findings indicate that nursing students have positive attitudes towards older people and that these positive attitudes are influenced by the Saudi socio-cultural context that promotes extended family structure with one or more older persons in most family units. Despite these positive attitudes, Saudi nursing students are unwilling to choose professional care of older people as a career path. Since this reluctance could be influenced by the dearth of educational content that improve students’ knowledge about the care needs of older people, the study recommends the establishment of educational programmes within nursing curriculum that promote a better understanding of older people’s care needs and thus enhance the value of caring for older people professionally.

Keywords: : Older People, Attitudes, Nursing, Saudi Arabia

English Prospective Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Profession of Teaching: An Explorative Study in Yemen (Published)

This study attempts to obtain empirical evidence on pre-service student-teachers’ attitudes towards the teaching profession in the faculties of Education at Hodeidah University, Yemen. Also, it investigates the effect of the participants’ gender, place of study and their selection of English as a major on their attitudes. 300 fourth-year student-teachers, undergoing B.Ed. courses in the English Departments of the different Faculties of Education affiliated to Hodeidah University, are surveyed. The Attitude Scale Towards Teaching Profession is used to identify the participants’ attitudes. To analyze data, mean, standard deviation, t-test and Pearson correlation are calculated. The results indicate that the participants tend to hold fairly positive attitudes towards the teaching profession, their attitudes are affected by their gender and place of study while there is no correlation found between the students’ attitudes and their selection of English as a major. Some recommendations are made in order to enhance these attitudes .  

Keywords: Attitudes, Faculties of Education, Profession, Prospective, Student Teachers

Using Explicit Pronunciation Instructions to Develop Students’ English Speaking Competencies: A Quasi-Experimental Study (Published)

This article aims to find out the effect of explicit pronunciation instructions of English on developing students’ speaking skills and attitudes towards the offered pronunciation training. A quasi-experimental design was employed to conduct the current study with pre and post-tests. Sixty university students were involved in the study and those participants were subjected to a treatment for 14 weeks of instruction on English pronunciation. Data were collected using speaking tests, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analysed and mean values, standard deviations and paired sample t-tests results were obtained to answer the pertinent questions of the research. The findings reveal that the method of explicit pronunciation instruction is an effective one in improving the students’ speaking skill as well as their attitudes towards the pronunciation training in particular and the learning of the target language as a whole. Finally, some pedagogical implications are presented to address a few crucial issues for teachers to be taken into their considerations for better teaching practices within the Yemeni EFL context

Keywords: Attitudes, Explicit Instruction, Pronunciation, Speaking Competence

High School Students’ Attitudes towards the Study of Mathematics and their Perceived Teachers’ Teaching Practices (Published)

The study employed a survey to explore 210 high school students’ attitudes towards the study of mathematics and their perceptions on their teachers’ teaching practices. The sample was made up of 102 males and 108 females who were randomly selected from four high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis of the Central Region of Ghana. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. The findings showed high perceived attitudes reported in the students’ interest in doing mathematics, usefulness of mathematics, and confidence in doing mathematics; it was unclear whether students perceived mathematics as a male dominated subject or not. With regards to teachers’ teaching practices, all the 3 subscales: use of student- centered approach, classroom management skills and communication skills studied, were reported to be important in influencing students learning of mathematics. However, communication skills adopted by teachers in teaching the subject was perceived as the strongest predictor of high school students’ attitudes followed by teachers’ classroom management skills. The study concludes that to ensure positive attitudes of students towards the study of mathematics, effective communication and classroom management skills should be integral in mathematics teachers’ instructional practices; they should be important goals of any mathematics teacher preparation programs

Keywords: Attitudes, High School Students, Mathematics, Teachers, Teaching practices

Does Mind Mapping Enhance Learning (Published)

In a setting whereby, students of the English Department at the College of Basic Education are exposed to course materials across a number of courses, in a language other than their mother tongue, requiring them to read, comprehend and analyse, note taking gets extremely complicated. The current study focuses on such a complex dilemma, with its objective to find out whether mind mapping may successfully be used by our students in order to overcome their linguistic problems. For the purpose, fifty third/fourth year English language students were used as the study’s sample. The students were divided into two groups and trained to use two different note taking techniques. Later they were given a 10 MSCs, each followed by subjective response question: know, remember, guess. In addition, students were asked to write about their experience to obtain qualitative data. Findings of the study suggest a higher level of performance when the students learn their study material using MM as opposed to SNT. More positive attitudes in favour of MM were also elicited from their selection between the three responses (Know, Remember & Guess)

Keywords: Attitudes, EFL, Higher Education, Long-Term Memory, Mind Map (MM), Performance, Short-Term Memory, Standard Note Technique (SNT)

Impact of an Educational Intervention of 40 Hours Training of Breast Feeding Promoting on the Knowledge and Attitude of a Sample of Health Professional Staff: A Study of A Pre and Post Evaluation (Published)

Health professionals have a crucial role in promotion, support and management of breastfeeding. To be effective in this effort, the clinician should focus on the issue from the preconception stage through pregnancy and delivery, and continue in subsequent infant care.  To assess the effectiveness of the UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training through the assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of the health profession staff before and after training course. Pre-posttest study with an intervention of an educational training course were conducted in Karbala maternity Hospital, during the period from May till July, 2016.A total of 90 participants arrange to reply to the invitation, Self-administered questionnaires were designed which include general demographic information, items related to the knowledge and attitude regarding the breast feeding. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program (version 20) Results were presented as the frequencies and percentage in tables and figures. Chi-square test was used to determine any association found between these demographic variables and knowledge and attitudes. P value < 0.05 considered as cut off value for significance. The study revealed that the majority 48.9% of the participants achieved fair level score of knowledge regarding to breast feeding in pretest while the knowledge score improved as the majority 75.6% reported good knowledge in posttest.  There is improvement regarding the knowledge related to basic information, breast feeding problems management and hospital policies supporting breast feeding. This improvement was significant statistically regrading knowledge related to the basic information (sings of adequate breast feeding 77.8%, breast feeding with local anesthesia 82.2%, breast feeding benefit 97.8% and contraindication to breast feeding84.4% with p<0.05. There is an improvement in good attitude from pretest to posttest in each attitude questions except for Q 14 and Q 15 (Formula is as healthy for an infant as breast milk, Breast-feeding is more convenient. than formula-feeding) the attitude is slightly reversed in the posttest. Significant statistical association were reported regarding the effect of the course of breast feeding promotion training in certain aspects of attitude questions especially the breastfeeding benefit aspect. UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training was effective tool to assess the   breast feeding knowledge and attitudes among health profession staff that provide maternity care.   

Keywords: Assess, Attitudes, Breast Feeding Training, Effectiveness, Health Profession Staff, Knowledge, Pre and Posttest.

The Degree of Faculty’s Use of Authentic Assessment Tools at Al-Quds University and Their Relation to Their Attitudes towards Them (Published)

The study aims to investigate and realize the degree of faculty’s use of authentic assessment tools at Al-Quds University and their relation to their attitudes towards them. To achieve the purpose of the study, a sample of (99) faculty members at the university was selected in the academic year 2016/2017. Two instruments were developed by the researchers, a questionnaire to measure the degree of faculty’s use of authentic assessment tools, and another questionnaire to measure their attitudes towards authentic assessment. And the reliability of the two instruments was reached. The results of the study showed that the use of authentic assessment tolls by the faculty at Al-Quds University is moderate, and there were statistically significant differences at (0.05 ≥ α)  in the mean score and in favor of gender and academic rank. And there were no statistically significant differences with regard to experience. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences in the mean score of the faculty’s attitudes towards authentic assessment which reached (0.05 ≥ α)  and was too high, and in favor of academic rank, and there were no significant differences with regard to gender and experience. The study concluded that there is a small positive relationship between the faculty’s use of authentic assessment tools and their attitudes towards it. In light of the above results, the study recommends conducting other research about the obstacle that stand on the way of using authentic assessment tools, and carrying out training courses for the faculty about the importance and need of using authentic assessment tools.

Keywords: Al-Quds University, Attitudes, Authentic Assessment, Faculty

Attitudes of Teachers Towards Application of Item Response Theory in Technical Colleges in Rivers State (Published)

This study investigated attitudes of teachers towards the application of item response theory (IRT) in the technical colleges in Rivers State. It is intended to ascertain the influence of these teacher-related factors on testing processes using IRT in these institutions. Five research questions were asked to guide this study and five null hypotheses were formulated and tested. Cross-sectional survey research design was adopted in this study. The population of this study comprised all the 424 technical teachers in the 15 technical colleges in Rivers State. The study used stratified random sampling technique to draw the sample of size of 212 out of the population. The instrument for data collection was a self-designed Likert type (five response level) questionnaire titled,Survey of Teacher’s Attitudes Towards Application of Item Response Theory (STATA-IRT), with a reliability coefficient of .86. Correlation analysis was used to answer the research questions and multiple regressions, R, was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. It was found from the overall result, that strong linear relationship exists between attitudes of teachers and the application of Item Response Theory in Technical colleges Rivers State. It was also found from the multiple regression results that the attitudes of teachers are predictors of effective application of item response theory in the technical colleges in Rivers state.

Keywords: Application of Item, Attitudes, Response Theory, Rivers State, Teachers, Technical Colleges

Attitudes of Pupils and Teachers Towards Life Skills Education in Public Primary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya (Published)

In the year 2009, the government of Kenya introduced Life Skills Education to help the students in coping with the challenges and demands for everyday life. It is important to understand how performed since then. As such, the study was conducted to find out the preparedness of public primary schools in the implementation of Life Skills Education (LSE) curriculum in Eldoret Municipality. Based on the study, this paper examines the attitudes of pupils and teachers towards Life Skills Education in public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality. The study was based on the 1997 Functionalist theory by Kinsley Davis. The study employed a survey design. Out of the total 42 public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality 13 of them were selected through simple random sampling. A sample size of 13 head teachers was purposively selected, from the 13 schools; 39 teachers, 3 from each school, were purposively selected. These comprised teachers of LSE. Stratified sampling was used to select one teacher from lower primary, mid-upper and upper primary. Pupils in Classes Six and Seven were purposively selected. The study, therefore, sampled was 299 respondents comprising of teachers and pupils. The data collection instruments used were: questionnaires and interview schedules for head teachers. Descriptive methods were employed in data analysis and data were presented in the form of frequency distribution tables, graphs and pie charts. Data from the interview schedules was analysed qualitatively. The study findings revealed that majority (69.1%) of the students in public primary schools in Eldoret Municipality enjoyed learning Life Skills Education. This shows that students had a positive attitude towards learning of life skills education. In addition, it emerged that majority of the teachers believed that Life Skill Education was necessary for primary school children. It was therefore recommended that there is need to make its teaching and learning compulsory to all students as it contributes to personal and social development of a child at an early stage. Similarly, for teachers to develop an interest in teaching of LSE, there is need for them to be trained on LSE.

Keywords: Attitudes, Eldoret Kenya, Life Skills Education, Public Primary Schools, Pupils., Teachers

Weight-Related Perceptions and Self-Reported Lifestyle Behaviors among Black Nurses in the United States (Published)

Obesity is a growing epidemic for both the general population and nursing profession.  50% of nurses are overweight or obese (Miller, Alpert, & Cross, 2008), with more than 40% of Black women obese in 2008 (CDC, 2011).  This descriptive study examined weight-related perceptions and lifestyle behaviors of Black nurses (N=41) living in the US. Participants were recruited from the graduate and undergraduate nursing programs at Kean University.  IRB-approved Informed Consent was obtained before completion of a 13-item questionnaire assessing weight perceptions and lifestyle behaviors.  Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2) assessed weight (women, n = 33, M = 28.64, SD = 5.58; men, n = 8, M = 26.60, SD = 5.58). Mean BMI for US born nurses was 27.88  1.78 and 28.57  1.31 for non US born, not statistically significant at t = – 3.18, p = .752. 41% of the group perceived their weight as normal.  A negative correlation (r = -.41, p =.008) existed between BMI and “Are you currently exercising?”  Findings reinforce the need for additional study to understand whether current exercise reduces the BMI or whether those with increased BMI lack motivation to exercise.

 

Keywords: Attitudes, body mass index, body size, nurse-patient relations, obesity management, stereotypes

Impact of an educational intervention of 40 hours training of breast feeding promoting on the knowledge and attitude of a sample of health professional staff: a study of a pre and post evaluation (Published)

Background: Health professionals have a crucial role in promotion, support and management of breastfeeding. To be effective in this effort, the clinician should focus on the issue from the preconception stage through pregnancy and delivery, and continue in subsequent infant care.  Aim of the study: to assess the effectiveness of the UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training through the assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of the health profession staff before and after training course. Methodology: Pre-posttest study with an intervention of an educational training course were conducted in Karbala maternity Hospital, during the period from May till July, 2016.A total of 90 participants arrange to reply to the invitation, Self-administered questionnaires were designed which include general demographic information, items related to the knowledge and attitude regarding the breast feeding. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program (version 20) Results were presented as the frequencies and percentage in tables and figures. Chi-square test was used to determine any association found between these demographic variables and knowledge and attitudes. P value < 0.05 considered as cut off value for significance. Results: The study revealed that the majority 48.9% of the participants achieved fair level score of knowledge regarding to breast feeding in pretest while the knowledge score improved as the majority 75.6% reported good knowledge in posttest.  There is improvement regarding the knowledge related to basic information, breast feeding problems management and hospital policies supporting breast feeding. This improvement was significant statistically regrading knowledge related to the basic information (sings of adequate breast feeding 77.8%, breast feeding with local anesthesia 82.2%, , breast feeding benefit 97.8% and contraindication to breast feeding84.4% with p<0.05. There is an  improvement in good attitude from pretest to posttest in each attitude questions except for Q 14 and Q 15 (Formula is as healthy for an infant as breast milk, Breast-feeding is more convenient. than formula-feeding) the attitude is slightly reversed in the posttest. Significant statistical association were reported regarding the effect of the course of breast feeding promotion training in certain aspects of attitude questions especially the breast feeding benefit aspect. Conclusions: UNICEF/WHO 40-hour of breast feeding training was effective tool to assess the   breast feeding knowledge and attitudes among health profession staff that provide maternity care.   

Keywords: Assess, Attitudes, Breast Feeding Training, Effectiveness, Health Profession Staff, Knowledge, Pre and Posttest.

The Moderating Role of Biographic Variables on the Attitudes of Students towards Sport at Botho University (Published)

The purpose of this study was to show how biographic variables that include gender, age and level of study moderate a student’s attitude towards sport. A number of studies have been conducted on the influence of biographic variables the world over but none had been conducted at Botho University (BU) to examine the attitude of students towards sport in relation to these variables hence the current study. The study used 237 students across different levels of education from first years to final fourth year students. A structured questionnaire that employed a 5-point Likert scale was used for data collection. Results were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results of the study showed that across gender and education levels, students had a positive attitude towards sport. However, results also showed that age had a significant influence on the attitude of students towards sport as older students showed low levels/negative attitudes to sport than younger students.

Keywords: Attitudes, Beliefs, Biographic Variables, Interest, Sport

Staff Attitudes as an Indicator of Change Readiness: A Case of a Higher Education Institution Adopting ICT in Students’ Record Management (Published)

This paper is a product of research that sought to evaluate the attitudes portrayed by staff in higher education administration in an effort to adopt ICT for students’ record keeping. With an endeavour to bring an understanding of change management in the context of an institution of higher learning, knowledge of the level of staff readiness for the change is important. Staff attitudes were evaluated in this paper because they are considered an important indicator of change readiness. The change under focus is adoption of a Student Information System (SIS) at an Institution of higher learning, Africa International University (AIU) and the results could relate to other institutions. The study involved university staff members who were in either management of course registration, grades information or both for the academic year 2011/2012. Mixed methods were used involving qualitative data, collected through pre-study interviews and quantitative data in the actual study. Data were collected in three phases, first was by face-to-face semi-structured interviews in a preliminary study with 2 members of the University’s Management Committee, and second was pre-study with 6 representatives of local best practices in records management (USIU and Strathmore University). Descriptive data for the actual study with AIU staff members were collected using a questionnaire which mainly collected quantitative data but also had room for open-ended questions. Evaluative Research design was adopted for the study, where descriptive data from AIU staff were placed in comparison with the pre-set criteria from the best practice institutions. Judgment was then made to determine the level of change readiness among the staff members at AIU based on prevailing attitudes to adopt a SIS in management of students’ academic records. The threshold for readiness was set at 67%. The entire study evaluated 5 indicators of change readiness, and only one, (staff attitudes) which is the focus of this paper met the set threshold to indicate change readiness towards the use of a SIS in records management.

Keywords: Attitudes, Change Management, Information Systems, Records Management, information and communication technology (ICT).

The Perceptions and Attitudes of Students towards Lecturers at a Ghanaian Public University (Published)

This study sought to determine how students perceive their lecturers and their attitudes towards same at a university in Ghana. The study adopted descriptive survey approach which utilized both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Data were gathered from students from twelve academic departments in four selected colleges of the University. A simple random sample of 652 students participated in the study. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data which were analysed with the aid of SPSS version20. Qualitative data were gathered using interview which were analysed using content analysis methods presented through verbatim quotations of the respondents. The study found that respondents evaluated lecturers as strong in areas that include knowledge of subject; use good examples; stick to the syllabus; examples related to covered areas; and respect for, and interest in students but weak in teaching study techniques; providing interesting and meaningful learning activities; providing prompt and effective feedback; examinations allowing students to express their knowledge freely; and sharing personal experiences were rated poorly by the respondents. The results further show that students had positive attitudes towards lecturers by regarding them as role models in this study. It is, therefore, concluded that while there were strengths in lecturer’s attributes in the university, there were also weakness. Recommendations were made to improve effectiveness of students-lecturers interaction

Keywords: Attitudes, Credibility, Lecturers’ Knowledge, Students’ Perception

The Effect Of Country-Of-Origin, Consumer Characteristics And Attitudes On Consumer Behaviour Towards Foreign Clothing Brands In Nairobi, Kenya (Published)

The country-of-origin (COO) concept refers to the country where a particular product is made and is anchored on the international marketing theory. The broad objective of this pioneering study was to determine the effect of COO, consumer characteristics and attitudes on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in Nairobi, Kenya. The specific objectives were to: assess the influence of COO on consumer behaviour; determine the influence of country-of-origin on consumer attitudes; establish the influence of consumer attitudes on consumer behaviour; assess the influence of consumer characteristics on consumer behaviour; determine the extent to which consumer characteristics moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour; assess the degree to which consumer attitudes influence the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour and; establish the extent to which the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands is influenced by consumer characteristics and by consumer attitudes. The pertinent hypotheses were derived from the objectives. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design which facilitated testing of hypotheses quantitatively and ensured that conclusions about the COO research problem were based on the information provided at the time of the research. Primary data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires from a study population comprising 384 consumers of clothing brands across Nairobi County, Kenya. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study established that country-of-origin influences consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands and there was a significant association among the two. The findings also revealed that consumer characteristics directly influence consumer behaviour and also moderate the relationship between COO and consumer behaviour. There was a significant relationship between consumer characteristics and consumer behaviour. Furthermore, the results showed that consumer attitudes strongly mediate the relationship between country-of-origin and consumer behaviour, and there was a significant association among the two. Finally, the joint effect of COO, consumer characteristics and consumer attitudes was greater than the individual effects of the independent, mediating and moderating variables on consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands. The combined effect of these variables on consumer behaviour was also found to be statistically significant. The study has made contribution to theory, policy and practice in relation to consumer behaviour towards foreign clothing brands in general and specific influence of country-of-origin, consumer attitudes and consumer characteristics. The selection of the study variables was not exhaustive. The use of a relatively small population, use of a descriptive cross-sectional research design and testing of COO as a single concept put constraints on the generalizability of the results. The use of quantitative methods alone is also restrictive. Future research should seek to address these limitations by inclusion of the additional factors; use of a longitudinal and broader research design and; incorporation of qualitative research techniques such as focus group sessions and structured interviews.

Keywords: Attitudes, Consumer Behaviour, Consumer Characteristics, Country of origin, Foreign Clothing Brands, Kenya, Nairobi

LANGUAGE CHOICE AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDES IN A MULTILINGUAL ARAB CANADIAN COMMUNITY: QUEBEC– CANADA: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY (Published)

This study aimed at investigating language choice among Arabs of Quebec– Canada. It also explored Arabs’ attitudes towards Arabic, French and English in particular and factors involved in using these languages. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers selected a sample that consisted of (100) Arab respondents who reside in Quebec– Canada, covering different age ranges, gender, and educational backgrounds. The instrument of the study was a sociolinguistic questionnaire. Results showed that Arabs of Quebec– Canada have positive attitudes towards Arabic, English and French. They freely use their Arabic language in the domain of home and with family members, in worship places and when listening to the radio. In addition, they use English and French in Governmental offices and formal applications and in educational institutions. Results also showed that Arabs of Quebec mix these languages in the domain of neighborhood, with friends, and media.

Keywords: Arab Canadians, Attitudes, Language Choice, Sociolinguistics

THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTITUDES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN KCSE ECONOMICS EXAMINATION (Published)

Economics is a very important subject in the school curriculum. However, since the adoption of 8-4-4 system of education in Kenya in the mid 1980’s, the number of students registering for economics in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) has been steadily dropping. This has been attributed to the unsatisfactory student’s performance in KCSE economics. This paper sought to examine the effect of teacher characteristics and attitudes on student performance in Economics subject. The study is a field based survey conducted in secondary schools offering economics in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Simple purposive sampling was used to get the representative sample for the study. The representative sample, constituted all the fourth form students of economics in all the secondary schools in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya, Inspectors of schools in districts where economics was being offered and teachers from the schools where the subject was offered. A total of 187 students, 32 teachers and 4 district inspectors took part. Data was collected from the sample using questionnaires. The data collected was analysed using Excel software program. Basic statistical techniques were used to analyse various items in the questionnaire. These include calculating the averages, frequencies, percentages and totals. These statistical techniques were used to make comparisons in the various data collected. Conclusions on the variables analysed were finally drawn from these comparisons. The study concludes that teachers have a positive attitude towards the subject thus poor performance could be attributed to other factors than teacher attitudes. The author expects that teachers of economics will benefit from the findings on the identified factors that influence the instructional procedures and strategies and hence improve the performance of the subject in the national examinations.

Keywords: Attitudes, Economics Examination, Effects, KCSE, Student Achievement, Teacher Characteristics