Using Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme as a Teaching Approach to Change Students’ Attitude towards Practical Agriculture among Secondary School Agriculture Students: A Case of Migori County, Kenya (Published)
Agricultural education in secondary schools in Kenya is offered to achieve various outcomes among the learners as anchored in the school syllabus. One of the key learning outcomes is a positive attitude in practical agriculture. This study was done among form three agriculture students in Migori County and focused on finding out if there was a difference in attitude towards practical agriculture between students who took part in a supervised agricultural experience programme and those who did not take part. A learning outcome test was used to gather relevant data before and after the programme implementation. Analysis of data was done using SPSS (Version 22). Descriptive statistics (frequencies and averages) were used to present data while charts were used to present the data. Inferential statistics (Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc) were used test the null hypothesis at α=.05 significance level. The study discovered that there was a statistically significant difference in attitude towards practical Agriculture between secondary school Agriculture students exposed to SAE and those not exposed to SAE.
An Evaluation of Students Attitude towards Project Writing in Selected Universities of South-West Nigeria (Published)
This paper explored students’ attitude towards project writing in selected universities of South-West Nigeria. Studies reveal that students’ attitude at different levels of education influences a variety of factors, including how they learn, what they learn, teaching methods, student/lecturers relationship, and successful completion of assignments including writing tasks. The study aims to establish the interrelation of a student’s mental approach to project writing by gathering data on their learning experiences based on instruction within the formal learning environment. The study adopts a descriptive survey design. This study sources data from 314 students enrolled for Library Science, Information, and Communications Technology in three different universities. The result shows a meaningful predictive effect of writing attitude and environmental factors on project writing performance of students. The students also perceived that their knowledge can be updated regularly through ecological actions. The overall results indicate a moderate contribution of attitude/behavior and environmental variables to how students approach their project writing tasks
Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students of Tertiary Institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening (Published)
Cervical Cancer which is the second most common cancer in women is largely preventable when detected early. Premalignant form is the earliest stage of cervical cancer can be detected early through effective cervical cancer screening. This work was carried out to ascertain the knowledge and attitude of female students in four tertiary institutions in Imo State towards Cervical Cancer and its Screening. Self-administered closed end structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires were properly validated. Three hundred and ninety-eight female students in tertiary institutions who were of reproductive age between 16 – 45 years were used as respondents. All completed and returned their questionnaires. These were analysed using simple statistical methods. Result analysis showed that 350 (87.9%) have heard of cervical cancer while 265 (66.6%) have heard of cervical screening. One hundred and eighty-six (47%) were sexually active while 17(4.3%) have done the screening. Three hundred and seventy-two (93.5%) agreed that having multiple sexual partners was a risk factor. Three hundred and eighty-three (96.2%) of the population know that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the causative agent. The most prevalent reasons for not undertaking the screening were embarrassment 374 (94%) and fear 320 (80.4%). The study has revealed high knowledge of cervical cancer amongst the students but poor attitude towards its screening. Women of reproductive age including students in the tertiary institutions should be enlightened on the need of the routine screening for cervical cancer especially once they become sexually active. This is expected to increase rate of early detection and treatment thereby preventing the heavy economic cost of treating and managing full-blown cervical cancer.
Differences in Students’ Behavior and Attitude regarding Study at Home and Library in Focus Private Library at Wad Medani 2019 (Published)
Background: library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, selected by experts and made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing, often in a quiet environment conducive to study. Greatest benefit for many is having fewer distractions. At home one might have to contend with roommates, pets, and other temptations. In addition to fewer of these distractions, the library can provide you with a wealth of educational resources that can aid you in your studies. Objectives: This study is aim to compare studying in library and at home in different aspects. Methods: This is cross sectional descriptive community base study. Results: Total number of students were 150, estimation number of hours when students study in library were: 7.3% of students study more than 10 hours, 53.3% of students study 5-10 hours, 35.3% study 2-5 hours and 4% of students study less than 2 hours. Estimation number of hours when students study at home were 3.3% of students study more than 10 hours, 12.7% of students study 5-10 hours, 44.7% of students study 2-5 hours and 39.3% of students study less than 2 hours. This study found out 93.3% of student prefer study at library while 6.7% of students prefer study at home .Conclusion: This study conclude that the Liberary is the suitable and preferable place for studing in majority of participants, and the maximal hours spend on studing are found to be in people studing in liberary.
This study investigated the relationship between learning environment and SS2 students’ variables in English language in Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study investigated the issues of school learning environment as it relates to SS 2 students’ achievement in English language and attitude towards the subject. The study utilized the correlation research design. Through the purposive random sampling technique a sample size of 540 English language students were used for the study. Three instruments were used to elicit information from the respondents; English achievement Test and a structured questionnaire. The instruments were face validated by experts and yielded the following reliability co-efficient of 0.76 using Cronbach Alpha for school learning environment; the English Achievement Test yielded a reliability co-efficient of 0.78 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation while the instrument on attitude yielded 0.63 using Cronbach Alpha. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while regression was used to test the hypotheses. Findings of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between the school learning environment and students’ achievement in English language. The study also found a significant relationship between the learning environment and students’ attitude towards English language. Based on these findings, one of the recommendations was that Government and stakeholder in the education industry should improve the school-learning environment by rebuilding, repainting and renovating all the dilapidated school buildings to make them more attractive and conducive for learning so that students’ achievement in English language will improve. Social infrastructures necessary for effective teaching and learning of the English language should also be provided.
Use of Instructional Media as Determinant of Students’ Achievement and Attitude in English Language (Published)
This paper examined the use of instructional media as determinants of students’ achievement and attitude towards English Language. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to find out whether the use of instructional media is a determinant of SS2 students achievement and attitude towards English language. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the descriptive research design. The population comprised 1600 teachers and 2800 SS2 students in 217 public secondary schools in Ebonyi state. Through the simple random sampling technique a sample size of 540 respondents was selected for the study. The instrument for data collection were three structured questionnaires which dealt with instructional media, students achievement and students attitude to English language. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages. Result of the findings showed the following: There is a significant relationship between the use of instructional media and students achievement in English language. 2. There is a significant relationship between the use of instructional media and students’ attitude towards English Language. Based on the findings, one of the recommendations was that the government should provide audio and audio-visual aids in all the schools in the federation for improved students achievement in English language and the development of positive attitude towards the subject.
Fostering Senior Secondary Students’ Attitude and Achievement in Biology in FCT-Abuja Using Facebook Instructional Strategy (Published)
The study investigated how Facebook Instructional Strategy could be used to foster Senior Secondary Students’ Attitude and Achievement in Biology in FCT-Abuja. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The population comprised 12719 senior secondary two biology students. The sample consisted of 247 SSII biology students selected from six government schools in the study area using purposive sampling technique. Data were generated using Germination Achievement Test (GAT) and Students’ Attitude to Biology Questionnaire (SABQ). The GAT and SABQ were validated and subjected to reliability analysis using Kuder-Richardson formula 21 (K-R21) and Cronbach Alpha formula which yielded coefficients of 0.75 and 0.68 respectively. Six research questions guided the study, while six hypotheses were formulated. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviations to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the mean achievement score of students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy and those taught using the lecture method; there is significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy. There is no significant difference in the mean attitude ratings of students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy and those taught using lecture method; There is no significant difference in the mean attitude ratings of male and female students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy. Based on the findings, it was recommended amongst others that biology teachers-trainees should be trained on the use of facebook instructional strategy in teaching biology.
The Perspectives and Effectiveness of Authentic Materials in Listening Comprehension of Saudi University Students (Published)
Due to the lack of exposure to the use of English real language beyond the classroom time, specifically the use of authentic listening materials in the listening lessons, many students have great difficulty understanding the real language produced by native speakers or the authentic ones they hear. However, far too little attention has been paid to the use of authentic listening materials in the Saudi EFL context. To address such critical gab, the current study aims at investigating the effect of using authentic materials on the listening comprehension ability of Saudi EFL subjects. It also explores students’ attitudes and reactions towards the use of authentic listening materials. The participants of this study were students majoring in English Language Translation Department at Qassim University. After random selection, 44 students from the fourth level took part in this study. The participants were randomly divided into two equal groups: the experimental group consisting of (22) students and the control one consisting of (22) other students. The control group underwent listening activities through inauthentic materials, while the experimental group was exposed to and received a combination of inauthentic and authentic listening materials. Data collection instruments were two listening comprehension tests, interviews and questionnaires. Results of post-tests revealed the experimental group’s listening comprehension ability improved significantly more than that of the control group. Analysis of the interviews and the questionnaire also revealed EFL students’ satisfaction and positive attitudes toward the use of authentic listening materials. This means that the use of authentic materials helps bring the contact to life, and ultimately makes learning and using language more meaningful and easier for students. These results again verified the value of authentic material-use in the classroom, specifically in regards to teaching listening skills. The positive findings of this study also indicate the need for authentic materials to gain a larger role in the EFL classroom and for more research to be carried out in other areas of language skills. Hence, using authentic materials in teaching English in tertiary level needs more attention in their use in the classroom.
The Relationship between Farmers’ Attitude towards the Improved Cassava Processing Technology and Adoption (Published)
This paper discusses the relationship between farmers’ attitude towards improved cassava processing technology and its adoption. About 360 participants [181 (50.3%) males and 178 (49.7%) females], strategically selected from Serengeti, Sengerema and Biharamulo districts in Mara, Mwanza and Kagera regions respectively in Tanzania responded questions on both attitude towards cassava processing technology and adoption of the same. Chi-square test indicated farmers’ difference in two components of adoption (involvement in pre-processing tasks and utilization of the cassava processed products) with two components (instrumental attitude and cognitive attitude) of attitude towards improved cassava processing technology. Further, direct logistic regression analysis indicated that attitude was not the only and sufficient variable uniquely explaining adoption of improved cassava processing technology despite having an influence on the same. Other variables such as attendance to training in improved cassava processing technology and intention to adopt the technology also uniquely explained adoption of improved cassava processing technology.
Exploring Critical Factors Influencing Sustainable Food Consumption: A Conceptual Review (Published)
Sustainable food consumption is consumption of foods/diets that meets the dietary needs of man, the society, environment, economy and culture. Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied to food consumption. When discussing the problem of unsustainable consumption, there is a need to focus on consumers’ behavior towards the decision making process. The sustainability of food consumption depends on individual consumer choices, but these individual choices are severely constrained by a range of factors. This paper is an attempt to profile these factors that affect sustainable food consumption. In addition, a research model is drawn up to aid further studies in this area.
Awareness and Attitude towards Utilization of Reproductive Health Services among Adolescents in Calabar Municipality (Published)
Purpose: The main focus of this study was awareness and attitude towards utilization of Reproductive health services among adolescents in Calabar Municipality. Objectives: In order to successfully carry out the study, the following objectives were formulated to guide the study. To determine the level of awareness of adolescents towards utilization of reproductive health services in Calabar municipality. To assess the attitudes of adolescents towards utilization of reproductive health services in Calabar municipality. To identify the barriers of adolescents towards utilization of reproductive health services in Calabar municipality. Literature: Literature, was reviewed based on the research variables, Methods: the research instrument used in collecting data for analysis was a questionnaire which was administered on one hundred and fifty (150) adolescents in Calabar Municipality who served as sample for the study. Their responses were analyzed using frequencies, percentage and Pearson product moment correlation analysis and the following results were obtained. Results: in table 3 indicate that 50(33.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they did not like reproductive health services because of its complications to health while 3(2%) agreed, 84(56%) of the respondents strongly disagreed while 13 (8.6%) of the respondents disagreed. 40(26.6%) of the respondents strongly agreed, that they like reproductive health services because it prevents unwanted pregnancy, 44(29.3) disagreed, 60(40) of the respondents strongly disagreed while 6(4%) disagreed. 8(26.6%) strongly agreed that they love going to hospital because the nurses there will explain different methods of reproductive health services to them 90(60%) agreed, while 2(1.3%) strongly disagreed, 50(33.3%) disagreed. 80(53.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they love reproductive health services because they do not want to be pregnant, 8(5.3%) agreed, 60(40%) strongly disagreed and 2(1.3%) disagreed. 30(20%) of the respondents strongly disagreed that most adolescent choose the wrong method because it offers an appropriate method to each adolescent 30(20%) disagreed while 45(30%) agreed, 45(30%) strongly agreed. 45(30%) of the respondents strongly agreed that most women choose the wrong method because of improper counseling based on culture religion and ignorance 30(20) agreed while 30(20%) strongly disagreed and 45(30%) disagreed. Conclusion: Reproductive health services were accessible to adolescents in Calabar Municipality. And most adolescents were aware of the reproductive health services but fail to utilize it. There is no significant relationship between attitude of reproductive health services and adolescents utilization of reproductive health; Reproductive health services were available to the public for use. There is no significant relationship between barriers of reproductive health services and adolescents utilization of reproductive health services. Nevertheless, it was concluded that Local Government authorities should organize enlightenment campaigns, to educate adolescents in the area on the importance of reproductive health services.
Effectiveness of in Service Teachers Training Programmes Offered by DSD at Primary Level in Punjab (Published)
The underlying purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training (ISTT) programmes conducted in Punjab by Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). It further evaluates the strength and weaknesses of the various executed training programmes by DSD within Punjab, Pakistan. The following Quantitative study intends to highlight the various variables which act as a comprehensive tool for the acquisition of expected or desired outcomes. It further states those variables involved which act as a catalyst to bring a significant change within the classroom premises, institutions or working places and the attitudes, methodology and teaching practices of teachers or professionals. For that purpose, surveys were conducted by using questionnaires in various areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using coding and SPSS-16. The conclusion drawn from the data analysis illustrates the positive influence of ISTT within the classroom as well as on individuals. It enables the teachers to identify their strengths and weaknesses as it has been proved as an efficient tool for self-evaluation, self learning and reflection. ISTT also bring change within in the classroom as it enables the teachers to understand the complexity of learning process more explicitly.
The Attitude of Students to General Studies Computer Based Tests in Universities in South West Nigeria (Published)
Formative Assessment Practices, Attitude and Learning Outcome of Students in Mathematics in Selected Secondary Schools in South-South Nigeria (Published)
The study was conducted to examine the effect of formative assessment practices, and attitude on learning outcome of students in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in south-south Nigeria. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The quasi-experimental design was used in the study with a population of all Senor Secondary school three (SS3) students in Mathematics in selected public secondary schools in south-south (Cross River, Rivers and Akwa Ibom States) of Nigeria numbering 21,657. The sample of the study consisted of 541 (2.5%), SS3 students in Mathematics. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed in the study. The instruments for data collection are; the Formative Assessment Practice Questionnaire (FAPQ), Attitude Scale (AS) and Learning Outcome Test in Mathematics (LOTM) which were validated by experts in Mathematics and Measurement and Evaluation. Internal consistency was established with split half reliability method and the index ranged from .78 to .92 respectively. The stated hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Findings from the study revealed that there is a significant effect of formative assessment, attitude and gender on learning outcome of students in Mathematics.
Concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community, Akuku-toru Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was aimed at determining the concept and factors associated with infertility among married couples in Obonnoma community of Rivers State. A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at the Family Planning Clinic of the community’s health center between July and December, 2017, among 76 persons, out of 96 married couples that attended the facility. The mean score for knowledge of infertility showed that 39(51.32%) respondents had good knowledge, while 37(48.68%) had poor knowledge. Also, 41(53.95%) had positive attitude towards infertility while 35(46.05%) had negative attitude. Semen abnormalities, assumed spiritual forces, unknown cause, undescended testes, erectile dysfunction, menstrual disorders, previous reproductive tract infections/STIs, age, improper/poor sexual practices and fallopian tube dysfunction were the main factors indicated to be associated with infertility. Infertility is a common reproductive problem, with about one-fifth of the world population affected. There is still low poor knowledge about the true factors associated with it, hence, a lot of misconceptions, such as beliefs that IUCDs and supernatural powers can cause infertility, thus, most affected persons seek treatment from faith or traditional healers. Alternative medicine remains a popular option for couples, when they are unsatisfied with orthodox medicine. There is also poor knowledge about treatment options available, with cultural and religious beliefs masking most of such, resulting in reduced acceptability of assisted reproductive technologies. Vigorous enlightenment, especially, of rural dwellers, is pertinent and will produce better results of acceptability and utilization of available options.
A Relevance of the Implementation of Vocational School (VS) Towards the Needs of Industry and Workforce (Published)
This study explores the relevance of vocational school (VS) and industries to meet the needs of industries in order to get quality workers from VS. Therefore, the government of Indonesia stresses to strengthen vocational school (VS) through training both in school, company, or in technopark in order that the graduate of VS may have better competence and skill. Quantitative and qualitative of the secondary data, the in-depth interview during the focus group discussion (FGD), and survey data was collected from 536 respondents from 36 VS in eight provinces. Analysis was the combination of qualitative and quantitative from both survey and document triangulated with interview of other related resource persons. The findings reveal that the relevance of training in school and the needs of the industries is 91,67% relevant, the relevance of knowledge and the needs of industries taught in school is 93.34% relevant, skill 93.34%, and attitude 97.5%. Teachers perceptions for the three aspects is 90.83%. Most of the VS school programs are in accordance to meet the needs of industries, which have been working collabotively with schools. Training in both industries and technopark has improved VS students and teachers’ competence and skill. However, it is different with the reality that most of vocational school graduates have not been accepted by private sector or industries to work at their company due to the lack of several aspects, such as the skills which does not occur to the work of industries.
The Attitude of Married Men and Women towards Family Planning Practices in Ekiti State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices and the relationship between attitude and family planning practices in Ekiti State. Descriptive research of the survey design was used. The population for the study included all the married men and women in the 16 local Government Areas of Ekiti State. With the use of multistage sample procedure, a total of 1200 respondents were selected from the 16 local Government Areas of Ekiti State. A self-designed instrument was used for the study. The instrument was titled “Knowledge, Attitude and Family Planning Practices Questionnaire” (KAFPPQ). The instrument was validated by the researcher’s supervisor and experts in the field of English Language, Guidance and Counselling and Tests, Measurement and Evaluation. Split-half reliability method was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. A reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained and this is high enough to judge the instrument reliable. The instrument was administered by the researcher and trained research assistants in the Local Government Areas selected. The data generated were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and correlation analysis. It was discovered from the study that the attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices in Ekiti state is positive. The result further shows no significant relationship between attitude and family planning practices among married men and women in Ekiti State. The result showed significant relationship between religion and attitude towards family planning practice among married men and women in Ekiti State. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices in Ekiti state is positive. It was recommended that Nigeria government should encourage the establishment of daycare centres within public and private service areas so that married men and women will have the convenience of going to get contraceptives.
Psychological Factors and College of Education Students’ Learning Outcomes in French, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated psychological factors and College of Education students’ learning outcomes in French, Cross River State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The study adopted a survey research design and the population comprised 55 second year French Language students, of which the entire population was used for the study. A well validated Psychological Factors and Students’ Learning Outcomes in French (PFSLOF) questionnaire and a French Literacy Test (FLT) were used to collect the required data. The independent t-test was the statistical tools used for analysis of the data collected. Two hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that students’ attitude and personality have significant influence on their learning outcomes in French Language. Sequel to the findings of this study, recommendations were made.
Attitude and Sexual Behaviour of the Residence of Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State on the Awareness of HIV/AIDS (Published)
This study sought to find out the Attitude and Sexual Behaviour of the residence of Ijebu North local Government Area of Ogun State towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Accident sampling was used to sample 1,520 respondents in the local government. A self developed questionnaire was used as research instrument to sample 1,520 respondents. Simple percentages were used in analyzing the data. The result indicated that 1,520 respondents representing 100% the entire population were in support of campaigning and treatment programme for HIV/AIDS patients and also ready to encourage HIV/AIDS patients to spend the rest of their lives as loved ones 1328 respondents representing 87.36% of the entire population have changed from their promiscuous life style by being faithful to their sexual partners ,while192 respondents representing 12.64 were still engaging in promiscuous life style .Majority of the respondents that constitutes 85 .52%(1300) believed that abstinence remains the best option to avoid the infection while few respondents representing 14.48%(220) found it difficult to practice abstinence ,in other words they are not afraid of being exposed to HIV/AIDS. It was established that the people of Ijebu North local government have positive attitude towards people living with HIV/ AIDS. And were ready to encourage HIV/AID S patients to spend the rest of their lives as loved ones, the awareness of HIV/AIDS have positively influenced their sexual behaviour with the opposite sex which made them to abstain from unhealthy sexual behaviours and embrace abstinence to be healthy. It was recommended among others that government and non government agencies should make people awareness that HIV/AIDS is real and has no cure up to data. Health personnel should be moving from place to place to enlighten the rural dwellers about HIV/AIDS, and the consequences of exposure to the virus and ways of prevention and control of the infection that, if they are not infected they can be affected in many ways .
Social Cultural Transformation in Attitude and Behavior of Padoe Community (A Case Study of Padoe Community in Mining Area Of Pt. Vale, Tbk. In Wasuponda, Luwu District, South Sulawesi Province) (Published)
The presence of PT Vale Tbk in Wasuponda, Luwu Timur Regency resulted in a change of attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community due to effect of social problems created by the operation of mining companies in the region. This study aims (1) to explain and describe the attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community before the entry of mining industry in their customary territory. (2) To reveal and describe whether the presence of the mining industry PT. Vale Tbk caused a change in attitude and behavior patterns of Padoe Community and what are the changes in attitudes and behavior. (3) To find out the implications of social, economic, political and cultural changes in the Community due to the presence of PT. Vale, Tbk. The method used to collect data is observation, interviews, and literature reviews. The data collected are presented in descriptive analytical form. The research results indicated first, the attitudes and behavior pattern of Padoe Community before the entry of the Mining Industry PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk in Wasuponda Region, East Luwu Regency. They upheld the sense of mutual cooperation in community life and lived from gardening, breeding buffalo, managing sago and resin, searching rattan, and hunting. Second, a change in attitudes and behavior patterns of Padoe Community after the entry of the mining in Wasuponda. People are getting interested and seeing opportunities in industrial sector. Demand for labor is one reason for people preferring industrial activities rather than agricultural activities that more income they could get from the industrial activities than farming. It was the beginning of the changes in Padoe communities in Wasuponda. In addition, a change also takes place in educational orientation and roles in the family. Third, implications of social, economic, and cultural changes of Padoe Community due to the presence of PT. Vale, Tbk. Community life behavior of Padoe people changes because of the effect from outsiders through PT. Vale and that brings a variety of land issues: destruction of forest resources, such as resin and rattan. Meanwhile, the foothills usually processed by people as gardens and tubers have become part of mining concessions that they can no longer be worked on.