Comparison of Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACHT) and Cortisol Level Between Subjects Living in a Desert and Non-Desert Area of Cholistan, Punjab: A Cross Sectional-Analytical Study (Published)
Background and objectives: “To assess the pituitary and adrenal cortical functions in natives of Cholistan desert”. Methods and material: The study design was analytical cross-sectional, conducted in Cholistan desert and the Physiology and Cell Biology Department of UHS Lahore. The sample size was one hundred (100) through convenience sampling. Blood samples were drawn from the subjects. Serum was separated from the venous blood immediately to avoid the effect of hemolysis on serum K+ levels. The serum isolated was then transferred to two vials for ACTH and Cortisol level measurements. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 18. Results: The mean ± SD value for serum cortisol of the exposed and unexposed group were14.54 ± 4.30 μg/dl and 15.56±4.90 μg/dl respectively. But the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.273). Discussion: The environmental heat present at all levels of biological organization and to restore and adjust constant body temperature, fluid balance, and energy metabolism as a survival mechanism in the demanding environment. The serum ACTH levels were decreased in this study in the exposed group as compared to the un-exposed group; although this difference was not statistically significant with the p-value of 0.66. Acute exposures to heat have led to an increase in ACTH levels while the chronic acclimatization has been associated with relatively lower levels. Chronic exposure led to decreased levels of ACTH. The cortisol hormone values were also comparatively decreased in the exposed group and it was also not statistically important with p= 0.273. Reasons for different responses to acute and chronic stress are unknown but may be related to altered adrenal metabolism.
A Comparative Study of the Social Organisations of in-Migrants and the Indigenes of Kasoa, Ghana (Published)
The study investigated the social organisation of in-migrants and the indigenes of Kasoa in the Awutu-Senya East Municipality of Ghana within the context of Inter-Ethnic Relations Theory. The study adopted a descriptive survey design through the quantitative approach where a structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to collect data from 240 household respondents made up of 140 in-migrants and 100 natives through purposive sampling. With the aid of the version 22 of the Statistical Product for Service Solution, descriptive (frequency, percentage) and inferential statistics such as chi-square were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that the native respondents were not as open as the in-migrants to having ethnic friends. Besides, the study disclosed that in-migrant respondents were more actively engaged in trade associations than the natives. Again, the in-migrants were found to be more actively engaged in intra-tribal marriage. Based on the findings, the study recommended the establishment of more formal schools to socialise the in-migrants into the culture of the natives. Finally, the study recommended inter-tribal marriage and acceptance of members into trade associations as means of cultural adoption and assimilation.
The Dynamics of Transition of Rural Migrants to Urban Society: Case Study of Igbomina Migrant Community in Lagos (Published)
Adaptation is the process of adjustment of an individual organism to environmental conditions while integration is the process of opening a group, community, place or organization to all members, regardless of race, religion gender or social class. The dynamics of the process of transition of Igbomina people from rural to urban society was gradual and spread over a long time. They initially established in town the socio-political institutions and behavioral patterns which were familiar to them to fulfill most of the needs, which they met in urban environment. Even in later migration, there was not much changes to the pattern of family life. Migrants retained their rural system of traditional values, the concept of the urban culture did not develop due to the well-established culture of circular migration. The range of relationships that ethnic groups maintained among one another within the frame work of contemporary migratory phenomena includes cases such as assimilation, pacific coexistence and animosity. It must be underlined however, that in spite of the integration process, the identity of Igbomina was not obliterated. The transition process of Igbomina into Lagos urban society could therefore be best described as acculturation rather than assimilation in that Igbomina culture in Lagos cannot be described as an extension of the northern Yoruba sub-culture from where they came to Lagos, it was rather a symbiotic relationship between the Yoruba, Hausa, Ibo etc. living together as neighbours.
The literature of the Indian diaspora constitutes an important part of the burgeoning field of Anglophone post colonial literature. Diaspora is an emerging word in post colonial literary scenario. Its emergence has produced a radical transformation or ‘paradigm shift’ in literary and cultural studies. The Indian diasporic writers have attained popularity in the last decade because of the theoretical formulations generated by their works. These writers present a blend of culture of their native homeland and the culture of the host land. Diasporic literature helps in bridging the gaps between different countries, glocalizing the global and even in maintaining universal peace. The diasporic writings feature the quest for identity, uprooting and re rooting, insider and outsider syndrome, nostalgia, nagging sense of guilt etc. The process of survival of the diasporic individual involves the struggles and sufferings from “alienation” to “assimilation”. Bharati Mukherjee is an India born Canadian /American writer. She immigrated from her native land i.e. India to USA. She lived in Canada for about fourteen years before finally moving to USA. Her stay in Canada witnessed racist attacks, which are very clearly depicted in her writings. The author of eight highly praised novels, two collections of short stories and a smattering of non- fiction, shows her personal experiences. An immigrant’s life, full of pain, struggle, nostalgia, sense of belongingness, struggle for survival in the alien land, serves as the background of Bharati Mukherjee’s writings. The paper aims to compare two of her short stories, “A Father” and “Fathering”, extracted from her collections titled Darkness and The Middleman and Other Stories, respectively. The objective of this paper is to undertake diasporic perspective including the post colonial approach to achieve the objective.
The aim of this research is to investigate the assimilation of some consonant sounds in Eghlid, one of the Iranian dialects. There are different kinds of assimilation and this articles pays to total/ progressive as well as partial/ regressive assimilation of some Eghlidian consonant sounds. The approach of this field-based research is comparative, descriptive and analytical, investigating the assimilation of /n/ to /m/ before /b/, the assimilation of /t/ to /s/ in /st/ consonant cluster, the assimilation of /d/ to /z/ in /zd/ consonant cluster, the assimilation of palatal stops // and // to their velar stop counterparts, and the assimilation of /l/ and /r/ to each other. The achieved results show the specific assimilation pattern of Eghlidian dialect with regard to the standard Persian pronunciation. The phonological analysis and the phonetic transcription of examples will be presented as well.