# Tag Archives: Assessment

## Assessment of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Students with Special Needs in Mathematics in Benue State (Published)

This study assessed conceptual and procedural knowledge of students with special needs in Mathematics in Benue State. Four research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A population of 36 Senior Secondary School (SS1) students in 3 Special Education Schools in Benue State during 2019/2020 academic session were used for the study. The sample size was the same as the population. Two-Tier Algebraic Diagnostic Test (TTADT) item cycle I and cycle II were  adapted and validated by two experts in Mathematics Education, one specialist in the  field of Test and Measurement all from Benue State University, Makurdi, and one expert in Special Education from Federal University Lafia as well as one SS1 Mathematics teacher from Government Model School, Makurdi. Trial testing was carried out on 10 SS1 students from Dunama Special School Lafia and reliability of TTADT was calculated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and was found to be 0.96. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to analysed data to answer the research questions, while t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The first finding of the study shows that the Mean scores of the SSN in Concept Knowledge and Underlining Reasoning were very low below 40% (31.25% and 21.08% respectively), while that of Procedural Knowledge is 40.69%. The second finding of the study shows that there exists a significant difference between the performance of SSN in Conceptual Knowledge and Procedural Knowledge in Algebra in favour of Procedural Knowledge (t=-5.39; P=0.00<0.05). The third finding of the study shows that there exist a significant difference between the performance of SSN in Conceptual Knowledge and Underlining Reasoning in Algebra in favour of Conceptual Knowledge (t=5.71; P=0.00<0.05). The fourth finding of the study shows that there exist a significant difference between the performance of SSN in Procedural Knowledge and Underlining Reasoning in favour of Procedural Knowledge (t=13.70; P=0.00<0.05). It is therefore recommended that, workshops, seminars and conferences should be organized to upscale, and strengthen the capacities of teachers in Special Schools, in the teaching of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge skills in Algebra and Mathematics in general.

## Teachers’ Competency towards the Implementation of School Based Assessment in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

The role of School Based Assessment (SBA) emphasized the teacher as a facilitator and an assessor. The assessment strategies involved in SBA requires a lot of responsibilities on the side of the teacher. Therefore, the research is aimed to assess teachers’ competency towards the implementation of school based assessment in secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria with the objective to determine the level of teachers’ competency towards the implementation of school based assessment and ascertain if difference exist with respect to the teachers sex, qualification and experience. In order to achieve this, one research question was raised and three hypotheses were formulated and tested in the course of the study. The study adopted the survey research design. All teachers in the 303 public secondary schools in the eighteen local government areas of the state formed the population. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 687 teachers from 61 public schools across the eighteen local government areas of the state for the study. The questionnaire titled “Teachers Competency toward the implementation of School- Based Assessment Questionnaire (TCSBQ). The instrument was validated and yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84 using the Cronbach Alpha method. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research question and independent t- test statistics to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the teachers are competent towards the implementing SBA. Also the results revealed no significant difference between male and female teachers while differences exist among the teachers with respect to teaching qualification and experience. It was recommended that government should provide more platform for professional development programmes and frequent training workshops and seminars that will continuously sensitize and enhance teachers in the SBA practices.

## Soil Chemical Quality Assessment of Some Land Uses In Imo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was conducted in Imo State, Nigeria to assess the Chemical quantities of some land using soil management assessment framework (SMSF) techniques. Three land uses namely; the grass land, continuously croppedand forest land. Soil profile representations were established in each of the physiographic units and soil samples collected from the pedogenetic horizons for the analysis of some chemical properties. The chemical properties investigated were the soil pH.organiccarbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, the exchangeable cations of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, cation exchange capacity and electrical conductivity. Analytical values obtained using the SMAF were combined into quantitative index based on the critical value of the soil properties. The results of this study showed that the grass land, continuously cropped and forest land were moderately acidic with mean pH values 5.43, 5.38, and 5.65. The organic matter contents were low in grass land and continuously cropped with mean values of 0.43 and 0.41 but moderate in the forest land with mean value of 0.82. Total K, available P and exchangeable K were low in grassland and continuously cropped with mean value of 0.96gkg-1, 0.85gkg-1 for N, 12.20mgkg-1, and 12.14mgkg-1 for P in grass land and continuously cropped respectively. The forest land had high sodium content with mean value of 0.74 and high electrical conductivity with a mean 4.91 dsm-1. The results revealed high chemical quality of forest land and low to moderate qualities of the grass land and continuously cropped.

Keywords: Assessment, Imo State, land use, soil chemical quality

## The Place and Pedagogical Function of the Scientific Image in Morocca Life and Earth Sciences Textbooks (Published)

The discovery of details, knowledge of the structures and composition of biological and geological elements is a very important step in the understanding of the scientific phenomena programmed in the SVTs lessons. Thus, scientific evolution has made it possible to explore different levels of organisation at ever deeper levels, whether in biology or geology, through the innovation of instruments and tools for exploration and observation, ranging from a simple magnifying glass to sophisticated techniques such as tomography or medical imaging. Textbooks transpose the results of these observations into scientific images that help learners to understand the phenomena under study as well as to develop a critical mind towards the proposed contents and to problematize their own knowledge within the framework of a competency-based approach that is adopted by the Moroccan education system. With the aim of evaluating the place and functions of scientific images of order: microscopic, magnifying observations and medical imaging, we analysed a corpus of 12 textbooks from the Moroccan educational system. We selected one copy of different accredited textbooks from each level of education. These are the textbooks for scientific awakening for the six years of primary education, three textbooks for middle school and three for high school. The analysis is carried out with the help of a self-developed grid which takes into account the percentages of each type of scientific images studied and their functions. The results showed that there is an evolution in the appearance of the scientific images studied as one progresses towards the second year of the baccalaureate: almost the majority of primary school textbooks do not include microscopic or magnifying observations or medical images, but they appear in the other levels with percentages that differ from one textbook to another. Microscopic observations are the most abundant among the other types of scientific images studied. Thus, scientific images with an illustrative function predominate, while those with a heuristic function and recommended in the competency-based approach are present in only a small percentage.

Keywords: Assessment, scientific image, textbooks

## Air Quality Index Assessment in Some Parts of Porthacourt Metropolis, Nigeria (Published)

The assessment determines the air quality status in some parts of Port Harcourt city and environs. The amount of air pollutants emitted into the environment are measured and described in relation to seasonal variations in the concentration levels of gases in the air sample with a view to assess the air quality status in Port Harcourt. Some industries within the study area include Pabod Breweries, plastcom in Transamadi axis, Fibow, dulfil in Choba axis, eleme Petrochemical in the oilmil/eliozu axis just mention but a few. Pollutants such as TSPM, SOx, CO and Pb in wet and dry seasons were measured in association with meteorological parameters.  Air monitoring gadgets such as Kestrel 4500 Compound weather Tracker (for measurement of metrological parameters and Digit 970 hand- held gas analyser for measuring the gasses) were employed in the monitoring.  The average wind speed within the dry season was 0.78m/s, while the average wind speed at wet season is 1.53m/s.  Average temperature observed within the study area is 26.350C in wet season and 33.20C in dry season. From the analysis of the result gotten from data collation in this work, the measured concentration of TSPM was high at 95.83ug/m3 in the wet season while it1661 ug/m3 was in the dry season. For CO, Rumuomasi was the location with a high value of 4.57 ppm in the wet season while Oil mill with a value of 32.37 ppm was highest in dry season. Similarly, SO2 had a high value of 0.74 ppm in the wet season and 1.26 ppm in the dry season. Finally, Lead (Pb), had Oil mill as its hotspot with a value of 0.77 ppm in wet season and high around Trans Amadi area with a value of 0.91 ppm in the dry season. A detailed analysis of the result observed that a mean concentration of the gaseous pollutants was higher in the dry season than the wet season. They were found to have exceeded the permissible limits as given by the FMEnv, NAAQS and FEPA with dominant pollutants like Pb, and CO having hotspots in Trans-Amadi, Choba and Oil mil  areas. The only area that had limited air pollutant exposures was at Air Port Juction, OMAGWA mapped as a control area for this assessment

Keywords: Air, Assessment, Meteorological, Season

## Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities and Their Impact on Ngong Hills Forest in Kajiado County, Kenya: A Remote Sensing Approach (Published)

Human beings are dependent on forests for various livelihood needs. Forests offer a variety of benefits, including ecological, social as well as economic benefits. As such, the development and conservation of forests around the world is vital. Monitoring of the forest ecosystem is mandatory in order to detect any changes in the ecosystem. Forest cover change detection gives an opportunity to track the productivity, health and the forest cover as well over the years so as to enable proper management, promote conservation and enhance functionality. Optical and radar remote sensors make it possible to monitor changes by use of various analytical techniques that include visual interpretations. The study investigated how remote sensing can be applied to detect change in forest ecosystem and to assess the rate of change of Ngong Hills Forest in Kenya. The project sought to determine whether anthropogenic activities are the major cause of the change in Ngong Hills Forest. Data from satellite images was analysed from 1984 to 2019 to identify the changes that have occurred on the ecosystem. Landsat and Rapid-Eye images were used to inform on change detection. In this case, rapid eye data was found to be better than Landsat data in informing on change detection because of its high resolution thus high precision and better results. The changes depicted by the remotely sensed data were mapped for ease of analysis and visualization. The research depicted a massive decrease in the forest cover despite the afforestation efforts by the Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in the 1990s. The forest has been depreciating massively from 1995 depicting greater deforestation rates between the years 2010 and 2019. This depreciation has been acknowledged by the KFS as it is said to be occurring due to the anthropogenic activities mainly settlement and logging. The means of detecting change by use of remote sensing is thus able to identify the exact areas that change has occurred and thus provide insight for the Kenya Forest Service and other ecosystem protection bodies on the most affected areas and the extent of change. Once the study area is mapped, it is possible to calculate the areas that have decreased in vegetation quantity, areas where increase has occurred as well as the areas that have remained unchanged. The findings of the study make it possible for management agencies to enforce conservation because of the presence of reliable data.

## Physico-Chemical and Mineral Composition of Arun Stream in Idanre Community, Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)

Arun stream was evaluated for its physico-chemical properties and mineral composition to know its suitability for human comsumption. The results obtained from the physical characteristics like colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, conductivity and total Dissolve solids were within the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinkable water.The results for the chemical analysis were total hardness (22.00±0.20mg/l), calcium hardness (16.00±0.10mg/l) magnesium hardness (22.00±0.10mg/l), Nitrate (0.32±0.10mg/l), Sulphate was absent, chloride (8.99±0.20mg/l), total Alkalinity (6.00±0.10) and PH (7.80±0.20) respectively.The mineral composition Analyzed were Iron (0.02mg/l), Manganese (0.015±0.01mg/l), Copper(0.01±0.01mg/l), calcium (6.4mg/l±0.10),Magnesium (1.46±0.10mg/l) and sodium (5.84±0.10mg/l) for Arun stream respectively. These values were below WHO specification for drinkable water.

## Pre-Service Teachers Assessment of Student Learning in Science Education (Published)

This paper was conducted to examine the tools, strategies, and problems encountered in assessing student learning by pre-service teachers in science during their on-and-off campus clinical experience. A explanatory sequential mixed method design (Creswell, 2003) was used in this study. Three research-made instruments were used in this study: The Assessment Checklist for Student Teachers in Science, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Questions, and the In-depth Interview Questions. There were 17 pre-service teachers participated from a teacher education institution. Findings of the study using Kruskal-Wallis One-way Analysis of Variance and Thematical Analysis using Phenomenological Reduction Method revealed the assessment tools used most frequently and least frequently, assessment strategies, and the problems encountered by pre-service teachers in science in assessing student learning.  The findings also revealed that there was a significant difference in the use of rubric (p value=0.045) as the least frequently used assessment tool by pre-service teachers in science when grouped according to specialization.

## Assessment of Information Communication Technology Proficiency of Secondary School Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study attempts to assess of information communication technology proficiency of secondary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey method and questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The total population for the study is one hundred and twenty nine (129) secondary schools teachers in four selected secondary schools in Etsako west local government area of Edo state. The population of this study is not too large and as such the entire population was taken as representative sample using purposeful sampling technique. It was revealed from the study that ICT is not employed for teaching by majority of the teachers in the secondary schools studied, most teachers have negative attitude towards the use of ICT, a majority of the secondary school teachers studied have positive perception of  perceived ease of teaching and learning with ICT and Lack of ICT facilities in secondary schools, lack of commitment from government and school management, lack of motivation and training, lack of ICT policies in secondary schools, lack of technical support from government and private sector, lack of qualified teachers to teach ICT and Teachers’ anxiety over being replaced by technology are  the major factors militating against teachers readiness and effective use of ICT in secondary schools in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo state. The study recommends that Government should be committed to full implementation of ICT in secondary schools by way formulating policies and implementing the existing one if any with all sincerity.

## An Assessment of Sport Facilities in Senior High Schools and Their Effects on Sports Development in the Tano North and South Districts of Ghana (Published)

The study was conducted to assess and evaluate the state of sports facilities and their effects on sports development at the Senior High School (SHS) in the Tano North and South Districts in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. Three Hundred (300) final year students were selected using stratified and simple random sampling techniques from a population of one thousand (1000). Census study was used to select all 13 PE teachers in the six SHS chosen for the study. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The instruments used were interviews, observation and questionnaire. Data was analysed using chi- square (x2) to test the hypotheses and find the relationship between availability of sports facilities and sports performance at a significance level of 0.05. The findings revealed that the study fails to accept the hypotheses that there is no significant relationship between sports performance and provision of sports facilities. Both teachers and students accepted in the study that there is a significant effect of availability of sports facilities on sports performance and also agreed that existing facilities are not properly maintained. It was revealed that sports facilities in the various schools were not adequate for their PE subject requirement. Other findings are that most of the facilities have paths and passages across them since people use them as routes to their destinations, for celebrations and other activities. Generally, the study has revealed that sports facilities in the Tano North and South were inadequate and have significant effect on sport performance. It is recommended that administrators and other stakeholders invest in sports facilities to beef up sports performance.

## Assessment for improving ESL learners’ writing skills among undergraduate students: A case study of Skyline University College (Published)

The present study seeks to investigate the main difficulties undergraduate students face in academic writing. The participants in the study are 52 randomly selected first year students from the School of Information Technology, Skyline University, Sharjah, UAE. Through assessing samples of the students’ assignments, the researcher will identify the main errors so that he can give constructive feedback and plan revision and remedial activities to help learners overcome those difficulties. In addition to using students’ assignments as an instrument for collecting data, questionnaire will be administered to students to explore types of problems they face in the English composition course, their view on the way English writing class is delivered, and to what extent they find classroom writing tasks relevant to their academic, personal, and professional life. By identifying the common issues UAE students face in writing, the aim is to enhance students ‘s writing skills and design a course book which can be a reference in teaching academic writing course in the UAE high education setting.

## Investigating the Effects of Bangladesh and Global Studies (BGS) Assessment of Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination on Students Learning (Published)

The study determines to find out the present situation of Bangladesh and Global Studies test items/creative questions in Bangladesh. This descriptive study was conducted using a concurrent triangulation research design. To conduct this study both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. 16 test of Bangladesh and Global Studies test items/creative question papers of 2015 or 2016 were selected purposively as a sample from all educational boards. Bangladesh and Global Studies curriculum were analyzed to find out the major skills reflected through the curriculum. 48 students were selected conveniently for an interview from those who had been passed the SSC examination of 2015 or 2016. For collecting data from these sources, test analysis protocol, the curriculum content reading protocol and interview protocol were used as research tools. Test analysis protocol consisted of two criteria; wording criteria and practising criteria. Selected test items were analyzed based on these two criteria and Bloom’s cognitive domain. The study revealed that there was an imbalance in wording criteria and practising criteria of test items. SSC examination test items didn’t reflect the major skills of the curriculum appropriately. Most of the test items promoted students lower level learning and ignored higher level learning.

## Formative Assessment Practices of Senior High School Teachers in the Ashanti Mampong Municipality of Ghana (Published)

This study investigated the Senior High School (SHS) teachers’ formative assessment practices in the Mampong Municipality of Ghana. Three research questions guided the study: What is SHS teachers’ knowledge of formative assessment? What are SHS teachers’ formative assessment practices? How does formative assessment contribute to improvement in teaching and learning? Stratified and simple random sampling methods were used to select 80 teachers from the four public SHSs in the Municipality for the study. The study used a questionnaire for data collection. The study revealed that about half of the teachers lacked the conception of formative assessment and its sub-concepts. Generally, the teachers were involved in certain practices which unknown to them were formative assessment practices. They saw these practices as norms and daily routines that needed to be done as part of the teaching and learning procedures. To them, these practices contributed to improvement in teaching and learning. From the findings, the researchers recommended that, to increase the understanding of SHS teachers on formative assessment and its sub-concepts, pre-service teacher training must place much emphasis on the theory and practice of formative assessment and in-service training activities should be organised for teachers already in the field. Stakeholders of education need to give this the needed support.

## Selection Standardization and Musical Instruments Assessment of Music Instruments Preparation Subject in Music Education Study Program of Unimed (Published)

Factors which influences students to choose musical instrument such as: the role of musical instruments in musical performances, the influence of parents, the influence of teacher, the influence of sex, the availability of instruments, playing techniques and musicality. Selection standarization of musical instrument are used to see the extent of students in choosing musical instrument which is appropriate with the standard that has been determined by the lecturer. The standards for selecting musical instruments compiled by the lecturer team are: Piano Instruments, Swipe Instruments, Vocals, Blowing Instruments, Percussion Instruments, Drum Set Percussion Instruments / Percussion Instruments in addition to Drum Set / Standard and Voting Instrument Selection Assessment. From the standard of musical instrument, students choose musical instruments in accordance with established standards to take Music Instruments Preparation Subject and to achieve the competency of its subject.

## Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

## Application of Comics as Instructional Strategy in Language Skill Development: An Oracy Enhancement Paradiigm (Published)

English language is very important in Nigeria because it is used for education, commerce, governmental activities and in inter /intranational relations, among others.  The teaching of English language is being faced by a lot of problems ranging from poor teaching methods, students’ weaknesses in pronunciation, poor reading abilities and bad writing, which amount to students’ poor performance.  It is therefore important that the language is properly taught in order to enhance the communicative competence of students.  This papers looks into  the use of comics in pedagogy.  Important areas highlighted include:  English Language in Nigerian Schools; Oral Communication in English Language; Teachers’ Role in Enhancing English Language Teaching and Students’ Oral Competence Comics and Strategies for Using Comics to Enhance Oral Communication in English Language.  Recommendations offered include:  teachers should understand that oral language is at the base of literacy which involves risk taking through a willingness to confront more languages than what is presently owned. It therefore requires diligence and hard work on the teacher’s part to help students come across more words in their learning.

Keywords: Assessment, Comics, Oral Skill, Performance, Second Language

## Guidance Needs of Teacher Trainees in Selected Colleges of Education in the Volta Region, Ghana (Published)

Knowing students’ guidance needs helps counsellors to discharge their guidance duties more effectively. This paper investigated the guidance needs of teacher trainees in Colleges of Education in the Volta region of Ghana. The study employed the concurrent triangulatory mixed methods research design in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a total of 401 second year teacher trainees (256 males and 145 females) and three (3) counsellors. Two out of the three counsellors were males. Data were collected using a 27-item questionnaire, a semi-structured interview and focused group interviews. The quantitative data were analysed using chi-square statistics while the qualitative data were analysed thematically. The results showed that the guidance needs of teacher trainees in Colleges of Education in the Volta region are academic (study habit, how to further their studies, time management and test anxiety); financial (how to fund their education and how to handle or use money); social (intimate or boy/girlfriend relationship, interpersonal relationship); personal (knowing oneself, problem solving, self-control); and placement (the selection of elective courses, postings, and joining other professions). It was recommended that college counsellors to undertake regular needs assessment of trainees and design guidance programmes based on such needs.

## Assessments of Income Generating Activities of Rural Women in Hawul Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was conducted to assess the income generating activities of rural women in Hawul local government area Borno state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to identify the socio-economic characteristics, assessed the level of participation in income generating activities of that the respondents in the study area. Primary data was used for the study, the data was obtained through the use of structured questionnaire administered to 210 respondents and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics like multiple regression. The result revealed that respondents were experienced 82%, had household sizes of  5 and 10 persons. Fishing in wet season, crop production in wet season and cotton weaving in dry season were major income generating activities. Marital status (5.388), family size (.005) and education (1.433) had significant relationship with income generating activities among respondents. The study recommended that Nigeria government should establish as well as place recognition on technical schools to enhance women’s skills in their occupation. This is evident in higher percentage of the women’s involvement in vocational jobs. Also, government policy makers should enact laws that will facilitate women’s access to loan and land ownership.

## Assessment of Pollution Status of Ikwette Stream at Obudu Cattle Ranch Bottom Hill, Cross River State Calabar Nigeria (Published)

The focus of this study is on the assessment of pollution status of Ikwette stream at Obudu cattle Ranch Bottom Hill. Water samples were collected three times in the months of August, September and October 2014. The samples were analogized for physic-chemical and bacteriological parameters. The results of the analyzed samples were compared with the World Health Organization Standard for drinking water (WHO) and (NDWOR).Nigeria Drinking Water Standard. Pollution index (PI) was used the ascertain the level of pollution of the stream. The result indicates that all the stream. The result indicates that all the parameters except chromium (PI of 1) fall with in class 1 indicating no pollution and slightly polluted for chromium which fall with in class 2.

Keywords: Assessment, Pollution, Status, and Stream

## Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace