Tag Archives: Architecture

Architecture, Urban Design and the Building Industry: the Hub of Outsourcing (Published)

Building construction is complex, involving a wide range of building personnel, products, services and systems (be it mechanical, electrical or integrated service systems). The design process is highly organized, draws upon research establishments that studied designs, material properties, performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safety standards, and design professionals who determine user needs. All these in today’s world, involved Division of Labor and Specialization baptized, Outsourcing. The practice of architecture and building construction have for decades, adopted the services of the experts in putting together, buildings, structures, towns and communities without fundamentally baptizing the services with a name. The primary aim of this paper is to establish that Outsourcing has been in existence in architecture and building industry since the evolution of housing. To accomplish that, the authors adopted content base analysis, qualitative research method with data from secondary and primary sources. The building team includes, but not limited to the services of the architects, urban and physical planers, structural engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, builders, bricklayers, carpenters, etc. Be it the architect or the bricklayer, the components of the building have always been outsourced to different specialty areas or individuals with the capacity and special skills to put them together in what the economists called, “Division of Labor” and Social Sciences called, “Outsourcing.”         

Keywords: Architecture, Building, Experts, Outsourcing, Socio-Economic, Specialization

Exploring the different vernacular architecture in Nigeria (Published)

This paper focuses on vernacular architecture and the various vernacular architecture in existence in Nigeria. Nigeria as a country is heterogeneous in both its socio-cultural structure and ideological perspective because of its ethnic diversity. This study therefore examines the vernacular architecture of Nigeria with focus on the three major ethnic groups which are the Hausa’s in the Northern Nigeria having Hausa Vernacular Architecture, the Yoruba’s in the South-Western Nigeria having Yoruba Vernacular Architecture and the Igbo’s in the South-Eastern Nigeria having Igbo Vernacular Architecture with focus on their culture, region and identity in order to have a proper perspective on the vernacular architecture of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the different ethnic groups in Nigeria are reflected through their culture, region and identity. Ethnic groups with similar culture, region and identity share similar architectural characteristics as it relates to their building layout, size of family, space organization, openings and fenestration, decorations used, roofing type adopted as well as  the nature of Building materials used. As such, this paper suggest the classification of the vernacular architecture in Nigeria be considered from the cultural, regional and identity aspect due to the environmental, cultural and historical background in which vernacular architecture exist.

Keywords: Architecture, Culture, Nigeria, Traditional, Vernacular

Architectural Strategies Used In Hindu Temples to Emphasize Sacredness (Published)

This study examines the facet of “sacredness” of the Hindu temple with respect to its physical attributes and spatial arrangement. These contribute to enhancing the feeling of “sacredness” and help the worshipper focus on the sacredness within the temple, in contrast to the surrounding “profaneness”. This is achieved through two main aspects: of segregation from the world outside the temple, and increasing concentration of thought towards the object of worship. These are accomplished with the application of several architectural strategies. The devotee encounters these through his pedestrian pilgrimage, from the entrance of the temple up to his final confrontation with the deity in the innermost sanctum. Thus, a certain kind of behaviour and emotions may be seen as induced due to the spatial composition of the temple’s architecture which engenders an attitude of contemplation within the worshipper. This paper examines the architectural strategies used in order to achieve the two main aspects used to influence the devotee’s attitude towards worship and support the perception of the Hindu temple as “sacred”.

Keywords: Architecture, Focus, Hindu Temple, Sacred, Segregation., Spatial Elements

Uncontrolled Vertical Growing Coastal Cities in Brazil: Case Study about Accelerated Residential Verticalisation of Brazilian Coastal Cities from South to North, With Focus on Social-Spatial Segregation in the Construction of Urban Space, Forcing the Migration of the Former Local Communities of These Areas – An Artistic Approach (Published)

During our travels along the coast from South to North to visit the main capital cities of the different states, we could confirm an accelerated vertical residential expansion of neighbourhoods in these urban zones, seemingly uncontrolled and supposedly unplanned, with heights of skyscrapers varying from twelve to forty floors built next to each other, surrounded by areas with the dominant presence of houses. In this article, we investigate the whereabouts of the local population that lived in houses in these areas before the verticalisation of the neighbourhoods and search for answers for the question if verticalisation of the city is contradictory to equal urban rights, quality of life and access for everybody living in the city. A special approach was taken, as the production of architecture photography of the skyscraper in theses neighbourhoods allowed us to observe the urban areas very closely. For the consecution of the aim of the research, we used data obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), based on the 2000 and 2010 censuses, to identify the increase in number of apartments in the urban zones of the investigated cities in this period of time to proof social-spatial segregation, causing the migration of the former local population, also confirmed by in loco observations and interviews conducted with residents of the area during the artwork production from 1997 to 2016. We concluded that the former local population in these areas were forced to migrate to less expansive neighbourhoods in the cities or even left the urban zones to live in peripheral zones close to the city. The accelerated and widely “uncontrolled and unplanned” verticalisation processes resulted in social-spatial segregation of the city. In the urban agglomeration, a division has been taken place between privileged and unprivileged zones. In the privileged zones, the construction of huge walls around the condominiums and the lack of people in the streets are provoking increasing security issues and offer limited access only for a privileged portion of the population, whereas, in the unprivileged zones, due to the physical distant to the central working neighbourhoods of the city, people depend on cars. This creates a densification of the rich and an acceleration of the sprawling tendency of poverty. As a result of the process of verticalisation of neighbourhoods in capital cities on the coast of Brazil from North to South, we could identify several problems related to the process, based on our in loco observations and interviews carried out with residents during our field study, such as waterproofing coverings that are causing inundations of streets in the neighbourhoods, increase of temperature, wind funnelling, traffic jams, air pollution and security concerns, as well as large volumes of urban runoff, deficient water supply, wastewater and solid waste collection. One scenario in the future is that the neighbourhoods of the investigated coastal cities will suffer even more spatial segregation due to continued valorisation of its urban land, as areas receiving infrastructure elements. In consequence, the taxation increases and real estate pressure intensifies. The low-income population, known as local communities, are going to be driven out to more distant locations. Where they lived before, their houses are going to be replaced to built skyscraper. The accelerated verticalisation process, as observed in loco in coastal cities from the South to the North of Brazil, has produced increasingly segregated cities, rather than bring together and mix their citizen. As the results of our research show, the continuing and accelerated vertical expansion process in neighbourhoods of the main coastal cities in Brazil is full of contradictions and does not reflect on equal rights and access to the city for all its citizens, but rather reflects on social-spatial segregation. Future research needs to be carried out to accompany closely the urban development processes of the neighbourhoods in the main coastal cities included in this study.   

Keywords: Architecture, Brazil, Fine-Art Photography, Fortaleza, Natal, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Skyscraper, Social-spatial segregation, Verticalisation of coastal state capital cities

ENVIRONMENT AND ADAPTATION IN ARCHITECTURE PLANNING AND BUILDING DESIGNS; LESSON FROM THE FOREST REGION OF WEST AFRICA (Published)

In many regions of the world, the natural environment is sometimes severe. Consequently, many methods of adapting architecture to the natural environment are usually provided by man. Traditional architecture is one of these methods. Various types of these traditional architectural designs are found in West Africa. There are, for example, one-room designs with common toilets, common source of water, sanitation and other facilities. There are also group houses and compounds the characteristics of which reflect the traditions of the various tribes and their family life. Many of the architectural design of these houses reflect the significance of the environment and indicate the need to take advantage of the traditional architecture in modern architecture. In spite of the significance of traditional architecture, particularly for adapting to the environment, not much has been done to examine the characteristics and the need to take the advantage of traditional architecture in modern architecture. This is for example the case in West Africa where, even in rural areas, the present day architecture have done a lot to alienate traditional cultures in designs, and eliminate local skills, making the local artisans obsolete. Also, most available studies and books discuss mainly modern architecture to the neglect of traditional architecture. Thus, “environmental decay” has been increasing at an alarming rate, and the “abuse of the environment” has become responsible for a lot of major ecological imbalances. With modern architecture, and the orientation of development towards the Western model, as well as the neglect of the concept of traditional architecture which, in many cases, is in harmony with nature, and with little emphasis on indigenous resources makes the concept of housing for all a mirage. Thus, the need to create ‘model’ architecture with improved housing facilities using local resources and involving community participation with strong motivation cannot be over-emphasized. In doing this, the first step of a good knowledge of the ‘concept’ and characteristics of traditional architecture is essential. Thus, there is an urgent need to have information on the characteristics and usefulness of traditional architecture. This need is of interest to this book, the purpose of which is to document the characteristics of traditional architecture. The study illustrates these characteristics by using major tribes in West Africa.

Keywords: Adaptation, Architecture, Building Design, Environment, West Africa

Environment and Adaptation in Architecture Planning and Building Designs; Lesson from the Forest Region of West Africa (Review Completed - Accepted)

In many regions of the world, the natural environment is sometimes severe. Consequently, many methods of adapting architecture to the natural environment are usually provided by man. Traditional architecture is one of these methods. Various types of these traditional architectural designs are found in West Africa. There are, for example, one-room designs with common toilets, common source of water, sanitation and other facilities. There are also group houses and compounds the characteristics of which reflect the traditions of the various tribes and their family life. Many of the architectural design of these houses reflect the significance of the environment and indicate the need to take advantage of the traditional architecture in modern architecture. In spite of the significance of traditional architecture, particularly for adapting to the environment, not much has been done to examine the characteristics and the need to take the advantage of traditional architecture in modern architecture. This is for example the case in West Africa where, even in rural areas, the present day architecture have done a lot to alienate traditional cultures in designs, and eliminate local skills, making the local artisans obsolete. Also, most available studies and books discuss mainly modern architecture to the neglect of traditional architecture. Thus, “environmental decay” has been increasing at an alarming rate, and the “abuse of the environment” has become responsible for a lot of major ecological imbalances. With modern architecture, and the orientation of development towards the Western model, as well as the neglect of the concept of traditional architecture which, in many cases, is in harmony with nature, and with little emphasis on indigenous resources makes the concept of housing for all a mirage. Thus, the need to create ‘model’ architecture with improved housing facilities using local resources and involving community participation with strong motivation cannot be over-emphasized. In doing this, the first step of a good knowledge of the ‘concept’ and characteristics of traditional architecture is essential. Thus, there is an urgent need to have information on the characteristics and usefulness of traditional architecture. This need is of interest to this book, the purpose of which is to document the characteristics of traditional architecture. The study illustrates these characteristics by using major tribes in West Africa.

Keywords: Adaptation, Architecture, Building Design, Environment, West Africa