Tag Archives: Arabic

The Apple Store as a site of language ideologies: Arabic language as an example (Published)

Even though advertisements are thought to be mainly published for economic reasons, they are not ideology neutral. In online platforms, developers of language learning apps will need to advertise in a way that reaches a larger population and is persuasive. Utilizing Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1992), Multimodal Discourse Analysis (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2008), and Bhatia’s (1993) model of rhetorical moves, this study explores how developers of some Arabic Language Learning Applications (ALLAs) make use of discursive rhetorical persuasive strategies to advertise their products. The study also investigates how these advertisements can be ideology loaded by analyzing the descriptions of three ALLAs available on the Apple store. Findings show that ALLA developers connect the Standard Arabic language with Islamic religion and the Arabs’ identity as a rhetorical persuasive move. Also, success in Arabic language learning is promised with native Arabic speakers. Other moves link Islam to multimodal discursive units, such as colors and textile.

Keywords: Apple Store, Arabic, Ideology, advertisement, rhetorical

An Ideological Perspective on Competing Languages and Identities: The Case of Arabic and English in Saudi Arabia (Published)

The spread of English is being promoted as an important driver of social and economic development (Pennycook, 2009, p.116). However, this view can be “misguided”, as English can also be problematic, a source of inequality, and a “formidable obstacle to education” (Tollefson, 2000, p. 9). In this sense, the spread of English is seen as a form of the “linguistic imperialism” in which English enjoys an ideologically higher status over other languages, thus encouraging new forms of capitalism and endorsing the practice of homogeneity (Phillipson, 1999, p.274). In the same vein, it is argued that “language ideology represents statements of identity” (Cummins, 2000, p.xi). With regard to the context of Saudi Arabia, it is argued that if English can be a threat to the Arabic language, then it can also be a threat to the Arabic and Muslims identity (Elyas, 2008a, b), which may not be the true reflection of the Islamic view on learning other languages (Elays and Picard, 2010). Therefore, this article aims to evaluate the linguistic situation in Saudi Arabia in response to the spread of English and the tension this might have created with the Arabic Language to compete with English over gaining access to power and politics in different domains.

Keywords: Arabic, Identity, Media, Saudi Arabia, economy ideology

Problems in Arabic-English translation of articles encountered by Saudi Students (Published)

The present study aimed at investigating the problems of translating articles from Arabic into English encountered by a sample of Saudi students. The study employed one data collection tool which was a translation test. The test was administered to 25 fresh students at the Community College of King Saud University in the first semester of the academic year 2019. The examination of the data showed that 57.2% of the students could not translate articles into English correctly. There were four main findings with regard to the type of error made by the students in the translation of articles into English. These were the overuse of ‘the’, the wrong use of ‘a or an’, the omission of ‘the’ and the omission of ‘a or an’. Based on these types of errors, the researcher offered some logical explanations. As this difficulty proved to be serious, the researcher suggested carrying out some large-scale studies to either confirm the findings of this study or add other insights into the topic of the present study.

Keywords: Arabic, Articles, English, Problems, Saudi students, translation

The Translation of Synonyms in Arabic and English, (Published)

This paper shows that synonyms are inevitable in language.  Arabic or English are no exceptions. Both employ synonymy, i.e. synonymy can be within and across languages. It is a controversial issue among linguists of both languages.  The study explores the translation of several synonymous lexical items. These samples were taken from Arabic and English specialized dictionaries of synonyms. Through adopting a comparative investigation to these samples, the study explains that the translation of synonyms is problematic in the said languages.  The study argues that   although Arabic and English have synonyms, each one tackles its synonyms through its own linguistic system, using its own rules. The translation of synonyms in Arabic and English shows that similarities between both languages tend to be less than differences for they differ in different aspects.

Keywords: Arabic, English, absolute synonymy, near synonymy, synonymy, translation

A Psycholinguistic Study on the Comprehension of Passive Voice by Children Native Speakers of Jordanian Arabic (Published)

This study aims at examining the influence of age and gender factors on the Jordanian children’s comprehension of passive voice. Thirty children who belong to five age group from 3; 0 – 7; 11 years old participated in this study. Each of these groups include six children with equal number of males and females chosen randomly from an elementary school in Jordan. A comprehension test was given to children using six pairs of pictures that illustrate the contrast between the active and passive sentences. The findings indicate the Jordanian children exhibit an awareness of passive construction at an early age; at around three years of age. The gender variable was found statistically insignificant in the comprehension of passive voice.

Keywords: Age, Arabic, Comprehension, Jordanian, Passive

The Phenomenon of Gemination in English and Arabic (Published)

Gemination is a phonetic phenomenon whereby two identical /sounds/ co-occur in one word or at words boundaries. The co-occurrence of two identical sounds doesn’t matter, what matters is their pronunciation. Whether to pronounce them as one sound or two sounds is a matter treated differently across languages that have geminate sounds. As the present paper restricts itself to two languages only, Arabic and English, it investigates how gemination occurs in the two languages and how it can be represented? Is it restricted to consonants only or it can also occur with vowels? What type of gemination each language exhibits? These questions beside some more others are the main concern of the present paper in which the phenomenon of gemination is clarified in general, then a study of gemination is presented in English and Arabic respectively. There is a common view point which holds that English does not have gemination, but in fact it appears that English has gemination at certain conditions. Although it is unlike Arabic in its realization, but it can be said that gemination exists in English.  

Keywords: Arabic, Comparison, English, Gemination, Phonetic Environment

Developmental Stages Of the Production of Passive Voice by Children Native Speakers of Jordanian Arabic (Published)

This study aims at investigating the children’s production of passive voice in Jordanian Arabic. It sheds light on the factors that may influence the children’s production of some passive forms in Jordanian Arabic. The sample of the study consists of thirty Jordanian children who belong to five age groups from 3; 0 – 7;11 years old. Each of these groups includes six children with equal number of males and females chosen randomly from an elementary school in Jordan. A production test was given to the children using six pairs of pictures that illustrate the contrast between the active and passive sentences. The findings indicate the nature of the construction of passive in Jordanian Arabic does not have that complexity which may pose difficulties for the Jordanian children in their production of passive voice. The increase in age is accompanied by improvement in the child’s linguistic abilities necessary for the production of passive voice.       

Keywords: Acquisition, Age, Arabic, Passives, Production

A Case Study of Translating English Qualitative Adjectives in Attributive Position into Arabic at Bisha University (Published)

This study has focused on the undergraduate Saudi learners at Bisha University. Our main concern of this paper is translation of qualitative adjective sentences from English into Arabic by Saudi learners. This study applied the quantitative research method for gathering data. This paper was undertaken with the intention of investigating how and to what extent can the learners in two colleges translate the qualitative adjective sentences in attributive position from English into Arabic. As we all know that translation plays an important role in conveying messages from one language to another. Therefore, students should be encouraged and motivated enough to learn and practice translation from the source language to the target language to increase their understanding in this field . The objective of this study was to find out the major problems and difficulties the students faced in their study of translation in the classroom in general and in their translation the qualitative adjective sentences from English language into their mother tongue language in particular. It was clear that tasks, activities, and practice of the learners were insufficient and they need more and more practice in translation the different types of English qualitative adjective sentences in attributive position . Data analysis in this study revealed that most of the students had  major problems and difficulties in translating the qualitative adjective sentences in attributive position from English into Arabic  because of their mother tongue interference and the two languages have grammatical and structural differences. However, many students have tried their best and done fairly well  in translating some of the adjective sentences in the students’ translation test . It was possible to conclude that the classes of translation were largely teacher-centered and teacher dominated rather than student-centered . Besides, the learners should be given a lot of tasks and assignments  to improve their level of translation .                   

Keywords: Arabic, Attributive Position, Bisha University, English Qualitative Adjectives, Mother Tongue Interference, Translation Studies

On The Comprehension of the Cause-Effect Relationship between Asperger Syndrome and Pragamatics Language Deterioration in a Bilingual Child with Social Communication Disorder: A Pilot Case Study (Published)

Asperger Syndrome (AS) is often associated with social, cognitive, motor, and language problems, but an estimated number of AS bilingual individuals with this syndrome; especially those with social communication disorders (SCD) typically receive the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Consequently, such inaccurate diagnosis has negative effects not only at the linguistic level, but also at the level of treatment method where AS is merely a subgroup of ASD just like higher-functioning autism (HFA) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Utilizing Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT-3) in Arabic and then in English to test an AS bilingual 12 year-old boy with SCD, the first aim of the current pilot case study was to investigate the cause-effect relationship between AS and pragmatics mechanism where these children, the researchers hypothesize, fail to crystallize implied meaning of the target language (L2), not the source language (L1), which will help identify what language and which of its aspect (s)  is affected more. The study also compared two ASD diagnostic methods: Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) and Australian scale for Asperger’s syndrome (ASAS). The purpose was to specify which of these two assessment tools suits more AS individuals with SCD where, again, the researchers claim the former to be more accountable than the latter as it depends on the explanatory approach unlike the latter that follows the exploratory approach. The tests were administered in light of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSMV) and international classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD). To ensure the reliability and validity of the study, the researchers analyzed all case’s monthly and yearly school exams of both English (Case’s L1) and Arabic (Case’s L2) language courses starting with the 1st grade and culminating with the 7th grade in addition to an intelligence quotient (IQ) test that has been given prior to the tests. In addition, series of interviews were held with the parent along with related individuals to the case.  Of the two languages, outlined results show significant deterioration in meaning comprehension in both L1 and L2.  Compared with ASAS, ADOS found to be more accountable as it provides specific authentic data of the social behavior, cognitive and motor functions and linguistic and communication abilities of AS bilinguals with SCD in standardized and well-documented contexts. Further research on multilingualism and other ASD subgroups using large number of population, different methods and additional clinical resources is needed to turn the study from individuality into commonality; therefore, replicate its findings and generalize its outcomes

Keywords: ADOS, AS, ASAS, Arabic, Bilinguals, DSM-V, English, HFA, ICD., IQ, PDD-NOS, PPVT-3, SCD

Sanctity of Arabic as the Language of the Holy Qurʼān (In the Light of the Theory of “Meaning and Significance to Naṣr ʼabu Zayd” And Issue of “Creation of Qurʼān” to Muʻtazila (Published)

Arabic language has a long history. It is taught now everywhere in the Arab world and outside, and learnt by Arabs and non-Arabs, even Muslims and non-Muslims, here we believe in the truth of the words of Muammad the Prophet: “Arabic is not by the father and mother (i.e. by the birth), who talks in Arabic is an Arab.” Arab is the one takes Arabic as a means to express his conscience. This is the secret of the spread of Arabic and its immortality. It spread in the east, such as Persia, Iraq, and North African countries such as Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, Tunisia, Algeria and the Morocco. Such as Turkey and some other countries in Minor Asia. It also lived centuries in the West such as Andalusia, Spain, Granada and the scientific centers in Europe. These countries mentioned above did not have any link of association with the Arabian Peninsula before Islam, but they became Arab having an Arab-Islamic nature after they converted to Islam and studied the language of its laws in Arabic and adopted the language of this religion as a means to express their Arab and Islamic identity. The situation has not changed so far. It is learnt by everyone who wants to study Islam, its sciences and its sources of legislation in Arabic, whether he is an Arab Muslim or someone else. There is no doubt that Arabic had studied and still being studied in the East and West because of its religious sanctity. Arabic has its internationality by the global message of Islam that will be remained Until the Day of Resurrection. We study Arabic outside the Arab countries for the sanctity of its message and its lofty goals, because the course of understanding the religion is as much as the knowledge of Arabic.

Keywords: Arabic, Holiness of Arabic language, Language of al-Qurʼān, Muʻtazila, Qurʼān, ʾAshāʻira

Which Preposition? An EFL Dilemma (Published)

EFL students face tremendous difficulties when translating from Arabic to English. One aspect of grammatical constructions that EFL students find difficult to translate is the translation of prepositions. This study aims at investigating the difficulties EFL students face when translating prepositions from Arabic into English. 105 students enrolled in undergraduate Translation courses in the English department, College of Basic Education were given a list of statements and short paragraphs and asked to translate them from Arabic into English. In addition, the students were asked to provide academic information to be statistically evaluated as independent variables. After data was collected and analyzed, it was found that students have considerable difficulty translating prepositions, some more than others.

Keywords: Arabic, EFL, English, Grammar, Prepositions, translation

Cohesion and Coherence in English and Arabic: A Cross-Theoretic Study (Published)

Cohesion and Coherence Theory plays a significant role in the field of discourse analysis. Despite the fact that it occupies an important status in the Western linguistic literature, its linguistic roots in other cultures especially those in Arabic have not been paid enough attention. In Arabic, the classical linguistic renown study, namely Al-Nadhm Theory, proposed by Al-Jirjani seems to be an antecedent version,in a way or another, to the Western one. Thus, a scholar investigation of this claim is worth conducting to form a solid and clearer picture about cohesion and coherence as linguistic notions. This has prompted this paper to concern itself with the task of cross-theoretically contrasting the two theories so as to show the similarities and differences between them. Additionally, it attempts to find out some aspects of convergence between them. In association with the aforementioned aims, this study hypothesizes that the Western theory is a merely developed version of an antecedent version, namely the Arabic one. Though the two theories expose differences, they show similarities and share many linguistic areas where they meet. To achieve the aims of this study and test its hypotheses, it adopts a procedure which involves reviewing cohesion and coherence in the two theories in question, contrasting them, and, on the basis of the findings of the contrast, drawing some conclusions that accord with aims and hypotheses of this piece of research work. The conclusions are drawn to show whether the hypotheses of the study are verified or rejected.             


Keywords: Arabic, Contrast., English, coherence, cohesion

The Influence of Reading Comprehension on Reading Fluency (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.

Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

Does Arabic Language Act As a Supportive Tool for Learning English in Saudi Arabian Classes (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.


Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

An HPSG Approach to Free Relatives in Arabic (Published)

This paper describes free relative constructions in Modern Standard Arabic (henceforth, MSA) and aims to provide an HPSG analysis for them. MSA has two types of free relative constructions. One, which is introduced by the complementizer ʔallaði , looks just like a relative clause. The other, which is introduced by the elements man and maa, which also appear to be complementizers, does not look like a relative clause. Both types can be analysed in term of unary-branching structures (as NPs consisting just of a CP). In ʔallaði free relatives, the NP and the value of SLASH can be coindexed via the value of MOD on the CP. In man and maa free relatives, the NP and the value of SLASH must be coindexed directly.

Keywords: Arabic, Free Relative, HPSG, SLASH


This paper investigates attitudes of non-native learners towards learning aspects of Arabic culture. To achieve the goal of the study, the researchers used a questionnaire. The sample included 43 students enrolled at Ali Baba International Center, Qasid Arabic Institute and Modern Arabic Language International Center (MALIC). Results showed that the non-native learners of Arabic have positive attitudes towards Arabic culture and they favored aspects such as rules and behaviors, customs and festivals, political institutions, history, family life and food.

Keywords: Arabic, Culture, Foreign, Learner’s attitude, Learning, non-native


According to many studies on idioms, the most difficult ones are those that are linguistically equivalent but conceptually different. The researcher has collected a number of idioms from English and Arabic that belong to this type with a view to detecting the sources of this conceptual difference based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff, 1980, 2003) and the subsequent cognitive literature. The source of difficulty is proven to emanate from cultural encoding, including cultural experience, perspective, range, and gesture. The differences in the connotative load of the idiomatic words can also be a reason for the conceptual variance. The study stresses the need for raising conceptual awareness to support language learning

Keywords: Arabic, Conceptual Metaphor, English, Idioms