Political Islam and the Arab Spring (Published)
Religion to God and homeland to all” such a phrase illustrates the fundamental thought of religion as a one side and the state as another, an idea that was restricted during history in the monotheistic religions; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For the powerful dimension of religion as God’s orders and rules. The ultimate end with heaven or fire, made people in general subjected to such authority in which as the highest power that tempted groups to adopt and use, as their way to control people’s minds, thoughts, visions and life. Islam as the last monotheistic religion on earth and a dominant one in all Arab countries, part of Asia and Europe, had became one of the most popular and controversial issue as a religion that function powerfully in communities through social and political meanings. Therefore, politicizing Islam and the emergence of political Islam came as a result to several processes that started and developed since the death of Prophet Muhammad. Political Islam conceptualized for many purposes that agreed on the same goal; to brace political power in order to dominate the Arab nations. Recently, the concept of political Islam has rose strongly during the Arab spring that spread significantly in the Arab regions, due to revolutions led by Arab youths against their rulers, which gave political Islam the chance to revive as a Islamic political entities; Libya, Egypt and Tunisia went through the Arab Spring, some witnessed the rise of Islamist entities and some did not. The Islamists movements adopted new ideologies, visions and attitudes, in order to empower their influences on people’s, and persuades them that they form their saver and they are their only way to a stable and equal life. Hence it is worthy to examine the bound of political Islam and Arab spring, as Arab states ongoing their revolution and experiences a new political era that will define their upcoming sociopolitical roles, and will specify the new Arab’s representatives to the world.
Towards A Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis of Mubarak’s And Algaddafi’s Speeches (Published)
This article is dedicated to the analyse the most salient linguistic and extra-linguistic features of Algaddafi’s and Mubarak’s speeches during the Arab Spring. It will start with an overview of the Arab Spring events to provide a context within which the speeches were delivered. Followed by the suggested analytical framework to analyse the data, which combines Fairclough’s CDA theory to analyse the linguistic aspects of the texts such as the use of pronouns, vocabulary and repetition. This is subsequently followed by Kress’s multimodality approach, which draws on the importance of analysing the extra-linguistic features of the speeches because meaning can be established through other modes, like the image and body language. Lastly, this article emphasises the significance role linguists and speakers play to influence the audience by combining linguistic and extra-linguistic tools to persuade them with their goals.
The successful political revolutionary transformations fulfilled by the Arab Spring of 2010-11, acted as a catalyst for synchronous cultural, social and sexual changes. The ‘double revolution’ heralded the emergence of the new woman, transitioning from the docile and conservative, into a concupiscent hermaphroditic rebel, who dares to demand her sexual rights and freedom, challenge the existing norms and disclose her sexual trauma, pleasures, and desires. The body is ‘revolutionized’ and instrumentalized to resist marginalization and to propound bodily and sexual rights. There is an attempt to establish a relation between the historical events and their literary portrayal. The gender perspective of the Arab Spring is analyzed through examples of Arab women artists, whose works in literature, graffiti, blogs or social media, reflect the changes in the ‘Spring’ woman’s character, thought, and conceptualization of sex. Their opus epitomizes the new feminine subjectivities created through the intersection of gender, class, and nation.
The wave of mass protests spreading through the Arabic-speaking Countries may have begun to recede; it has left a wide-ranging impact on the region. It started in Tunisia in December 2010 and spread to the rest of the Middle East throughout 2011. Four authoritarian regimes have collapsed, and some are experiencing varying degrees of duress. If transitioning states fail in retooling their economies, the prospects for reform in other areas are dim. Virtually all the nations of the region have a long, long way to go. With the exceptions of the petro-rich Gulf States, which post impressive economic numbers for obvious and anomalous reasons, the region is in terrible economic shape. In all fairness, the Arabs themselves had not trusted their own ability to overthrow entrenched tyrannies. On the eve of the changes that swept upon the Arab world in late 2010, monarchies and military despots alike seemed to be immovable. Better 60 years of tyranny than one day of anarchy, goes a maxim of (Sunni) Islam. Fear of chaos played into the hands of the rulers. In light of this reality, the United States should seek to trim its military foot- print, thereby limiting its exposure to the repressive actions of nominal allies and aligning its expenditures with actual interests. From the perspective of U.S. interests, regional stability will always pre- dominate, and at this juncture, it is unlikely that transitioning states can adopt a retooled model of repressive stability. This narrows the options for prudent U.S. policy. In a changing Arab world, unconditional support of nominal allies will endanger the very stability that the United States prizes.
NIGERIA:THE PROSPECTS OF AN “ARAB SPRING”. (Published)
The phrase “Arab Spring” has now gained recognition in political lexicon and I believe it simply means sudden mass uprising aimed at the overthrow of existing Government which is effected by massive and unrelenting mass demonstrations, which suddenly paralyses the operations of Government of the day. Such actions amounts to a revolution defined as “violent civil disturbances that cause the displacement of one ruling group by another that has a broader popular base” (Davis 1962, p6).The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities of such “Arab Spring” translating into a Nigerian Summer. The position of this paper is that the condition for a revolution already exists in Nigeria. The Government should avoid things that would ignite the dormant forces into action that would be injurious to the safety of the nation.