Tag Archives: Approach

Effectiveness of Farmer Field School on the Productivity of Cassava Farmers in Calabar Agricultural Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The goal of this research was to assess the effectiveness of Farmer Field School on the productivity of cassava farmers in Calabar agricultural zone, Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of respondents; determine the perceived effectiveness of FFS as an extension approach; and assess the perceived effectiveness of FFS on farmers’ productivity one hypothesis, “there is no significant difference between yield and income of participants before and after participation in FFS” was formulated to serve as a guide for the research. Multi-stage and purposive sampling procedures were used to select 320 respondents for the study. However, on retrieval, 318 questionnaires were realized. Primary and secondary data were the main sources of information for the study. Structured questionnaire, validated and tested for reliability was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency and percentages, were used to analyze the objectives. Paired t-test was used to analyze the hypothesis. The result revealed that majority (64.5%) of the respondents were men, 39.3 percent were between the age bracket of 31-40 years, 86.5 percent were married, with a mean household size of 6 persons. The result further showed that FFS was positively perceived to be an effective extension approach (=2.83); helping farmers gather useful information to improve their farming (=2.84), among others. The result also showed that FFS was perceived to be effective in increasing the output and income of farmers after participation. Paired t-test revealed average yield of 69.90kg and 146.96kg, as well as average income of N35,773.58 and N75,411.95, before and after FFS. The difference was significant at 0.01 alpha level. FFS should be scaled up to cover all the Local Government Areas in the State and Country at large. It was also recommended that FFS should be used by extension service providers as effective training approach to avail participants with hands-on knowledge about their enterprises.  

Citation: N.A., Ayi and U.C., Undiandeye(2022) Effectiveness of Farmer Field School on the Productivity of Cassava Farmers in Calabar Agricultural Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria, International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies, Vol.9, No.1, pp.19-37

Keywords: Approach, Effectiveness, extension, farmer field school

An Algorithmic Approach to Solve Continuum Hypothesis (Published)

The continuum hypothesis has been unsolved for hundreds of years. In other words, can I  answer it completely? By refuting the culturally responsible continuum (Lam, 2014), one can link the problem to the mathematical continuum, and it is possible to disproof the continuum hypothesis (Lam, 2018). To go ahead a step, one may extend our mathematical system (by employing a more powerful set theory) and solve the continuum problem by three conditional cases. This event is similar to the status cases in the discriminant of solving a quadratic equation. Hence, my proposed algorithmic flowchart can best settle and depict the problem. From the above, one can further conclude that when people extend mathematics (like set theory — ZFC) into new systems (such as Force Axioms), experts can solve important mathematical problems (CH). Indeed, there are different types of such mathematical systems, similar to ancient mathematical notation. Hence, different cultures have different ways of representation, which is similar to a Chinese saying: “different villages have different laws.” However, the primary purpose of mathematical notation was initially to remember and communicate. This event indicates that the basic purpose of developing any new mathematical system is to help solve a natural phenomenon in our universe.

Keywords: Approach, Hypothesis, algorithmic, continuum

The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)

This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This  is known from the results of observations made by the researchers  themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher  conducted a research development  aimed at (1) to analyze  the  development  process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of  75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28,  while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.

Keywords: Approach, Based, Contextual, Development, Material, Poetry, Teaching, Text, writing

Integrating Traditional and Critical Approaches to Syllabus Design: A theoretical study (Published)

Chronologically speaking, the view to syllabus design has been changed over the decades of development of the phenomenon of second language learning and teaching, as we go through from language centered methods to learner centered methods and to learning centered methods.  An attempt was made in this paper to revisit the concept and the types of syllabus approaches in the realm of second language learning and teaching.  Topics analyzed included, the definition of syllabus, the categorization of syllabi types, the introduction of an integrative approach to syllabus design and the presentation of the proposed model to syllabus design. In this paper, I focus on the traditional and critical approaches to syllabus design and introduce an integrative approach and finally I present the proposed model to teachers and syllabus designers to apply in practical contexts.

Keywords: Approach, Curriculum, syllabus design


Teachers are important resources in the teaching and learning process and should therefore be considered alongside other learning resources. They are the best recourses to be built into a particular teaching strategy designed to achieve a specific learning practice for instance thematic approach, without which can be administrative problem to head-teachers. Without adequate resource materials, it is a drawback to the implementation of new ideas and techniques. The study sought to investigate resource capacities of ECDE centers in supporting thematic approach in teaching in early childhood development centers in Eldoret Municipality. It was guided by Kurt Lewin’s Three Stages of Change Model developed in 1954. The study adopted the Descriptive Survey research Design. The target population comprised 266 respondents comprising of 164 ECDE teachers, 82 head teachers and 20 Educational Officials. Stratified sampling was used to select thirty schools out of eighty two schools; Public and Private Schools which translated to 30% of the total sample population. Purposive sampling was used to select all the head teachers to participate in the study while random sampling was also used to select one ECDE teacher. Instrumentation included the questionnaire, interview guide and document analysis. Data was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Majority of the ECDC’s have inadequate resources and capacities both physical and human required supporting the implementation of thematic approach in teaching ECD children. The head teachers who supervise the curriculum in their schools are also not ECDE compliant hence, may not have be in a position to advice the teachers concerning the approach appropriately. The study recommended that ECDCs be equipped with adequate and developmentally appropriate materials and resources.

Keywords: Approach, Capacities, Resource, Thematic


As for the continued and rapid increasing of Dubai as one of the world most targeted areas for businesses and investments, transportation has become one of the main challenges that face decision makers in Dubai. RTA thus was established to unify responsibilities previously spread between several governmental departments (Dubai Municipality and Police Department). Moreover, RTA adopted decentralization by establishing 8 separate agencies and sectors in order to achieve highest levels of flexibility. The “RTA Service Standards Manual” governs the entire portfolio of existing and news services offered by RTA. The Manual is considered imperative to unify and standardize the varied approaches that are taken today in service development and monitoring

Keywords: Approach, Customer, Decision, Dubai, Guidelines, Improvement, Initiative, Manager, Manual, Owner, Phase, Pilot., Process, Quality, SSM, Service, Standard, Template

Investigation of Processing Conditions for Dietary Fiber Production from Cashew Apple (Anacardium Occidentale L.) Residue (Review Completed - Accepted)

Cashew is one of the most important plantation crops and widely grown in tropical areas as India, Brazil, Nigeria and Vietnam. Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) is not a true fruit, but swollen peduncle to which the nut is attached. Unlike cashew nut kernel, which has an indisputably exclusive fine taste and a commercial attractiveness of its own, cashew “apple,” despite its high nutritive values (high content of vitamin C and minerals, i.e., Ca, P, Fe) and economic potential, is virtually an unknown product in the consumer market. The edible cashew apple is the thick receptacle or “false fruit” to which the cashew nut or true fruit is attached. Cashew apple is considered as a waste in cashew nut processing industry. Various value added products such as juice, fenny, wine, dried cashew apple, syrup and jam can be prepared from cashew. Not many researches mentioned to cashew apple dietary fiber. So the aim of this research will investigate a new approach utilizing cashew apple residue to produce dietary fiber. By hydrolization, soluble fiber is pectin by enzym pectinase, carbohydrate by with following conditions ratio of cashew apple residue: water (1:6); pH 4.5; temperature for hydrolization 400C; enzyme concentration 0.3% (v/w), dietary fiber 87%.

Keywords: Approach, Cashew Apple Residue, Dietary Fiber, Value Added Product

Housing the Urban Poor in Nigeria through Low-Cost Housing Schemes (Published)

This paper discusses a strategy and functional approach for the provision of low-cost housing for the urban poor in Nigeria. It notes the rapid rate of urbanization occurring in Nigeria, which is due mainly to massive rural-urban drift, and explosive urban population growth. A major consequence of this occurrence has been the deterioration of housing situation in the urban centres, manifested in severe shortages of housing units, and overcrowding in poor quality buildings that are situated in degraded environment. The urban poor constitute the vast majority of urban dwellers and they are in a disadvantaged economic position to build for themselves and are generally unable to make effective demand of existing housing. Housing this urban population is a major thrust of sustainable urban development. This paper asserts that a strategy for achieving the goal of adequately housing the urban poor is extensive mass housing development employing indigenous materials and methods, and involving the target population from policy making through programme execution. This is a bottom-up, participatory approach that will ensure the sustainability of the housing development. A case study, State Housing Estate, Oke-Ila, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria in which indigenous materials were used in some buildings, was examined in the paper. The paper also looks at experiments with indigenous materials in the construction of model low-cost houses, and these include the Pampomani Housing Estate in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria, and Yakatsari resettlement scheme in Kano, Nigeria. The paper examines earth architecture as a relevant indigenous technology and recommends its use in housing the teeming poor majority in Nigerian urban centres.

Keywords: Approach, Housing, Poor, Strategies., Urbanization