Tag Archives: apathy

The Indifferent Attitude of the Ibibio to the Biafran Enterprise in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 (Published)

The Nigerian civil war (6th July, 1967 – 15th January, 1970) that plunged the entire nation into chaos and devastation involved various ethnic nationalities. The conventional wisdom has been that the Ibibio fought on the side of the Biafra. This study examined the role the Ibibio played in the civil war. The study revealed that a larger proportion of the Ibibio population participated in the war on the side of the federal troops. Few that supported Biafra were former federal military officers and some in the civil service. The support to the federal troops by the Ibibio was as a result of their marginalization and oppression by the Igbo in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The Ibibio played a significant role in the collapse of the Republic of Biafra. The study had corrected the persistent misconception that the Ibibio fought on the side of Biafra. The study made use of primary and secondary sources, the primary sources included oral interview, archival materials and government publications while the secondary sources were mainly books, articles in journals and unpublished thesis.

Citation: Godwin Stephen Emah and  Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola (2021) The Indifferent Attitude of the Ibibio to the Biafran Enterprise in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp.1-8,

Keywords: Biafra, Civil War, Ibibio, Nigeria, apathy

Demystifying Women’s Apathy Towards Rural Community-Based Cooperative Societies in Nigeria: An Empirical Insight (Published)

The main thrust of this paper was to examine women’s apathy towards rural community-based cooperative societies in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the types of cooperatives in the study area, the reasons for women’s membership of cooperatives, reasons for women’s apathy towards cooperatives and the socioeconomic determinants of women’s involvement in cooperative societies in rural communities. The study was carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all rural women in the study area. The respondents consisted of 145 randomly selected rural women. Data were collected with the aid of a validated structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, mean deviation, ranking and probit regression model. The result of analysis revealed that different cooperative societies exists in the area, women join cooperatives for various reasons such as access to loan/grants, to attract government support, access to farm input, access to educational opportunities, among others. It was also noted that women’s apathy towards cooperatives is associated with their lack of land ownership right, domestic responsibilities, and poverty etc. The age, marital status, level of education and occupation of women were significantly related to their participation in cooperatives. It was recommended among others that government should provide credit facilities to rural women to enhance their financial autonomy and participation in cooperative societies.

Keywords: Cooperative Societies, Nigeria, Rural, Women, apathy