After Jesus, Hamlet is the most cited figure in western consciousness” : Philosophical Readings in Shakespeare’s Hamlet (Published)
Shakespeare’s Hamlet is regarded as one of the greatest mysteries of world literature to be unfolded ever since it was first written. For centuries, Hamlet the play and Hamlet the character have bewildered readers and critics alike. The play is embedded with meanings and laden in philosophical thoughts and interrogations producing an endless width of readings and controversies throughout different ages and generations. However deeply rooted in time, Hamlet has always meant something for everyone ever since it was released. The play has transcended its spatial and temporal framework to embrace the universal, making it a good reference and landmark to return to according to the needs of the time. Hamlet breaks the thematic stereotyping cycle of the time during which it was penned in ways that provide meaningful discursive interpretations re-contextualized to resonate with contemporary audience and modern readers. This paper reinterprets the tragedy of Hamlet whose inner dilemma becomes that of the Modern Man worldwide. Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, is a call to hold a mirror to our most profound conflicts and anxieties, to the bulk of our darkest torments. Any discussion of the play should acknowledge the weight of its philosophical dimensions on which hinge the works of great existentialist philosophers like Sartre, Heidegger, and Kierkegaard (among others), which this paper will try to elucidate. A central concern in this paper is the disconcerting issue of Hamlet’s “nothingness” which becomes, in the long run, our own. Peering into the abyss of Hamlet’s psyche allows for a self-reflection, an outcry for the modern self to survive along with the fight with our consciousness to stabilize it.
Future anxiety among Jordanian university students during the Corona pandemic in light of some variables (Published)
The present study aimed to identify the level of future anxiety among Jordanian university students during the Corona pandemic, as well as to identify the differences in levels of anxiety among university students in the absence of a number of variables. The study sample, who numbered (321) male and female undergraduate students at public universities in northern Jordan, the study found that the level of anxiety of Jordanian university students was high, and the study also found that there are differences in levels of anxiety among university students due to gender. The existence of differences attributed to each of the variable of the college and the academic year, and the study recommended a number of recommendations, the most important of which were: The need to conduct other studies on a larger scale to identify the real reasons behind the high level of anxiety among Jordanian university students.
Age, Income, and Medico-Obstetric History as Predictors of Anxiety and Psychological Well-Being among Pregnant Women in Ibadan (Published)
The objective of the study is to examined age, income, and medico-obstetric history as predictors of anxiety and psychological well-being among pregnant women in the third trimester. The participants involved 92 pregnant women with the mean age of 29.61 years (S.D. = 4.42, range = 19.42 years). The study employed one-way factorial design. The state anxiety inventory (STAI), and the general psychological well-being questionnaire were the instruments used. The result of the analysis using anova, and independent t-test showed that the older pregnant women would experience lesser anxiety than the younger women (t = 3.68, df = 90; P <. 05). The psychological well-being of older pregnant women will be higher than younger pregnant women (t =2.06; df = 74; P <.05). Higher income earners exhibited lesser anxiety than lower income earners (F-test = 4.951; df = 91; P <.0091). Higher income earners showed more psychological stable than the lower income earners (F- test = 5.867, df = 75, P<.0043). And that the psychological wellbeing of pregnant women with poorer medico-obstetric history was lesser than those without medico-obstetric history (t = 2.636, df = 80; p <.05). Further studies could investigate women from an entire different culture.
Covid-19 Lockdown, Locus of Control and State Anxiety among Residents of Plateau State Nigeria (Published)
A total of 406 participants include 211 (52.0%) males and 195 (48.0%) females participated in this study. Three (3) hypotheses were tested using linear regression at 0.05 significant level. Findings of the study revealed that, the value of the calculated statistic of COVID-19 lockdown was significant, t = 7.070, p = 0.000 (p <.05). The value of calculated statistics of internal locus of control was not significant, t = 1.708, p = 0.088 (p>.05). Furthermore, the value of calculated statistics of external locus of control was significant, t = -4.088, p = 0.000 (P<.05). The researchers conclude that mental health status of individuals should be taken into consideration during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. It is therefore, recommended that mental health practitioners such as clinical psychologists and psychiatrists should be included as part of the task force to address COVID-19 pandemic considering the possible increase of mental health challenges during and after the pandemic.
Determination of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Retirees in Kogi State and Preventive Strategies (Published)
Retirees, especially in developing nations like Nigeria experience diverse health problems. Notable among them are depression, anxiety and stress. The present study aimed to determine the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among retirees, and formulated preventive strategies. The study was guided by four research questions and one null hypothesis. The survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of 1,250 respondents was drawn using multi- stage sampling procedure. Data were generated through researcher- structured questionnaires. The reliability was established through Cronbach Alpha statistic to determine the correlation coefficient index, which yielded 0 .97. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, and standard deviation. The study revealed that retirees experienced extremely severe level of depression (DASS) score=19.3, anxiety (DASS) score = 21.1 and stress (DASS) score = 17.3. It was therefore recommended that public health awareness and education campaigns of health problems on depression, anxiety and stress should be carried out by the National Orientation Kogi State Chapter, social welfare workers, counselors, educators, health educators, NGOs, and mass media to prevent and mitigate depression, anxiety and stress among retirees in Kogi State.
Selected psychosocial predictors of treatment adherence among Individuals with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain (Published)
One of the most challenging problems facing health care professionals globally is patients’ non-adherence to treatment programs. This study therefore investigated the role of anxiety, depression, self-efficacy and social support on treatment adherence.Ninety-two purposively selected individuals diagnosed with mechanical low back pain (mean age =37.45 ± 5.48) participated in this cross-sectional survey. A 95-item battery of scales (questionnaire) was used in measuring participants’ bio-data, level of anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, social support, pain self-efficacy and treatment adherence. Descriptive (means; SD; and %) and inferential (multiple regression and ANOVA) statistics were employed in analysis, with three hypotheses tested at p<0.05. Anxiety, depression, self-efficacy and social support jointly predicted cognition (R=.57; R2=.33;F(4,87)=10.64; p<.01), behavioral (R = .29; R2 =.08; F (4,87) = 1.97; p<.05) and therapy satisfaction (R = .29; R2 =.08; F (4,87) = 1.94;p<.05) domains of treatment adherence. Self-efficacy independently predicted behavioral (β=.59) and therapy satisfaction (β=.25) domains of treatment adherence (β=.25). Self-efficacy, social support, anxiety and depression are jointly pertinent in forecasting the cognition, treatment satisfaction and behavioural domains of treatment adherence among low back pain patients. Attention to these psychological factors would be needful in the management of treatment adherence among patients with low back pain
This survey study investigated research anxiety among education undergraduates in University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The population was 1,467 final year education undergraduates while the sample was 500 students drawn through proportionate random sampling technique. One research question was posed and 3 null hypotheses were formulated. Data for analysis were collected through the administration of copies of “Research Anxiety Scale” developed by the researchers on the respondents. The reliability of this scale was established through the test re-test method with an interval of two weeks. The obtained reliability co-efficient for the 4 sub-sections of section B were 0.81; 0.78; 0.76 and 0.81. The research question was answered with mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested with t-test of one sample mean. The results show that research anxiety is pervasive among education undergraduates. It also shows that instructional, weak computation ability and research supervision factors contribute significantly to research anxiety among education undergraduates. These results were discussed, their counselling implications stated and recommendations were also made. One of the recommendations is that lecturers should be exposed to periodic seminars, workshops and conference to update their knowledge of research.
Anxiety in Learning English as a Second Language at a Tertiary Stage: Causes and Solutions (Published)
This study aimed at exploring the causes of anxiety that freshmen English as a second language college students may feel when they transfer from secondary education to tertiary education. The sample of the study consisted of 70 female students enrolling in Level 1 Foundation ESL Center in the Community College of Qatar. To collect the data, a Five-Likert 40 item questionnaire was designed by the researcher. Its items were based on Horwitz’s battery for anxiety detection, with some adaptation to the specific situation in CCQ. Means and standard deviations of the subjects’ answers revealed that their anxiety was due to three main domains: communication apprehension due to discrepancy between secondary education and college education, test anxiety due to the unfair breakdown of grades, and the unified tests and fear of negative evaluation. The researcher suggests several recommendations for instructors, students, and administrators to solve the problem of students’ anxiety.
Differential Item Functing (DIF) In the Anxiety and Stress Scale on Students Academic Achievement in Chemistry Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) (Published)
This is a study that applied two different Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) methods for the detection of gender-and age-related item bias in the anxiety and stress scale on students’ academic achievement in chemistry (AASS). Specifically, a multi-group SEM approach was used to investigate both uniform and non uniform item bias in each subscale of AASS separately, and a multidimensional SEM approach that enabled in both subscales of AASS and with regard to both gender and age simultaneously. Results from the multi group SEM approach and the multidimensional SEM approach with regard to the detection of uniform item bias were largely consistent and generally agreed with the results of the ordinal logistic regression, item response theory (IRT) and contingency tables methods reported by Cameron et al 2014; Ogidi and Iweka 2015; and Iweka 2017. Inspection of parameter estimate’s of the final model showed that there was a significant positive association between Anxiety and stress (r=0.83, P<.001) indicating that symptom severity with respect to Anxiety goes together with symptom severity with respect to stress. There was a significant negative association between Age and Anxiety (r.024) P<.001), indicating that older students score lower on Anxiety than younger students.
Selected Variables Influencing Undergraduate Students’ Attitude toward Educational Research Writing In University Of Port Hacourt, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated selected variables influencing undergraduate students’ attitude toward educational research writing in Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. Four research questions and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 alpha level guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 561 final year undergraduate students was drawn from the population through stratified random sampling technique based on the six departments of the Faculty. The four instruments used for data collection were Research self-concept Scale (RSS); Research Anxiety Scale (RAS), Research Achievement Motivation Scale (RAMS) and Research Attitude Questionnaire (RAQ). These were validated by experts in Educational Psychology, measurement and evaluation. The reliability coefficients of RSS, RAS, RAMS and RAQ were 0.72, 0.69, 0.81 and 0.76 respectively which were determined through Cronbach Alpha technique for internal consistency of the instruments. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test of independent sample means. The results revealed that self-concept, research anxiety and achievement motivation significantly influence attitude of undergraduate students toward educational research writing. Based on these results, recommendations were made including that school guidance counselors should endeavour to counsel students with low self-concept, low achievement motivation and high anxiety pertaining their academic progress especially in educational research writing.
Anxiety Associated With Child-Birth, Caesarean Section and Coping Strategies among Women for Elective Caesarean Section in Selected Hospital at Oshogbo Metropolis (Published)
Introduction: Child-birth is one of the most events in a woman’s life. Many of pregnant women showed anxiety or fear of child-birth and caesarean section, therefore this study was aimed at assessing the anxiety associated with child-birth, caesarean section and coping strategies adopted by the respondents. Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive research design was adopted, 182 respondents were randomly selected on the basis of Taro Yamane sample size determination. Four (4) instruments were used to collect information from respondents which were demographic characteristics, knowledge of C-Section, State Anxiety Scale and COPE inventory. Result: In term of demographic characteristics, 37.9% were at the age bracket of 26-35 years. 55.2% were Christians, 69.2% had tertiary education. As per the knowledge of C-section, 71.4% possessed knowledge, 65.4% hand experienced C-section. On the basis of anxiety, 60.4% were moderately based, 60.4% were frightened, 42.3% were uncomfortable while 49.5% were moderately nervous and 51.1% respondent were not pleasant for being booked for C0-section. All respondents were using one or the other coping strategies. There was no significant differences between level of anxiety and coping strategies amongst respondents. Conclusion: it was conducted that issue of religious affiliation should be considered during the period of the health education and information at the antenatal clinics.
Speaking skill is necessary for everyone who wants to learn second / foreign languages. Feelings of anxiety and nervousness are common among second/foreign language learners. Different learners with different level of anxiety use different strategies while speaking a foreign language. Existence of such feelings in the learners may prevent them from achieving the desired goal. Some speak in front of others without any anxiety, but some delay this activity until learn enough knowledge, and some delay it forever and never speak a foreign language. The aim of present study is to investigate the relationship between anxiety and English speaking skill among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this aim 100 of EFL learners who learn English in language learning institutions in Ilam province are investigated. The instrument used in this study to measure student’s foreign language speaking anxiety is the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) developed by Horwitz (1986), and the results of speaking grades which are qualitative data from the interview with learners is used as another kind of questionnaire to measure learners speaking. To analyze the scores SPSS software was used. The results show that English learning anxiety has a significant moderate negative correlation with the English achievement of the students in this study, the participants of this study as EFL learners usually have levels of anxiety, and the higher the FLCAS score is, the low English speaking is, so by reducing the level of anxiety of learners English speaking can be improved.
The Study on Motivation and Anxiety of English Learning of Students at a Taiwan Technical University (Published)
The purpose of this study is to investigate inner motivation and anxiety of English learning as it is experienced by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners with respect to various majors, differences in genders and language proficiency. Specifically, it studies EFL students at a technical university in Taiwan. This study surveyed and analyzed 857 freshmen from a technical university in Taiwan. Based on the analyses of structural equation modeling, the results indicated that English learning anxiety impacted English learning motivation in different ways depending on genders and majors. On the other hand, English learning anxiety had little effect on English learning motivation for the different levels of language proficiency groups, especially for learners in the intermediate group. Generally speaking, most of the learners were prone to instrumental rather than integrative motivation in terms of learning English, and their levels of English language class anxiety were higher than their levels of English use and test anxiety. The findings can help clarify the nature of both English learning anxiety and English learning motivation as psychological constructs to students