EFFECT OF LAND COVER CHANGE ON FRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM IN CALABAR MUNICIPALITY, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
The study examined the resultant effects of land cover changes on Anwatim River Located in Nkonib Clan, Calabar municipality. Anwatim River being a fresh water ecosystem that once served as a major source of drinking water and domestic water supply in the area is now lost due to land use and land cover changes. Data for the study was obtained from aerial photographs and was considered from 1980-2013. However, an interval of 10 years was used in determining the changes that have occurred alongside effects on the river size. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (Arc view GIS 9.3 software) technology was used in change detection analysis. From the study, it was revealed that from 1980-1989, the land cover was about 3,198,553.7 square meters with a river size of 883,463.5 square meters. Between 1990 and 1999, the land cover was reduced to 2,765,521.2 square meters which then reduced the stream size to 782,124.0 square meters. Similarly, in the years 2000-2009, further depreciation in land cover was observed to be 415,732.9 square meters. In 2013, land cover area of 72,390.4 square meters is now what is left with a corresponding river size reduction to 3677.9 square meters. Therefore, the total land cover loss of 3,126,163.3 square meters to built-up areas (housing and industrial development) have led to a total loss of 3,194,875.7 square meter of Anwatim River in size and extent.