Tag Archives: Antioxidants

Neonatal Bisphenol A Exposure Alters Thyroid-Axis and Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Brain of Rat (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of neonatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the neuroendocrine system (thyroid-brain axis). 20 or 40 µg/kg of BPA was orally administered to neonatal male albino rats (Rattus norvigicus) from postnatal days (PNDs) 15 to 30. Both administrations gave rise to a lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control group at PND 30.  Also, a marked reduction in serum of neonatal growth hormone (GH) was observed in both treated groups. In neonatal cerebellum and cerebrum, the elevations of oxidative markers [lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] due to both administrations were observed at PND 30, along with decreased activities of antioxidants markers [total ascorbic acid (TAA), total thiol (t-SH), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)] with respect to control group. Thus, hypothyroidism in BPA might disturb the neonatal thyroid-brain axis via production of free radicals, and this, might destruct the plasma membrane and cellular components delaying cerebrum and cerebellum development.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Bisphenol A, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Prooxidants., Thyroid hormones

Antioxidant System Responses of the Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum) Plant To Chromium Toxicity (Published)

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different doses of chromium on antioxidant system of the coriander. A total of the coriander seeds were divided among 3 groups. The cultivation of plants was occurred and treated with different concentrations of sulfate (0.4, 0.8 &1.6 mM magnesium sulfate) for 6 weeks until completely growth and ensure for healthy. Each treatment group was divided into three subgroups to handle treatment concentration of 0 µM, 50 µM and 100 µM chromium. Antioxidants (peroxidase, GSH, Ascorbic acid, ASPX, SOD and Catalase( and lipid peroxidation were recorded. All level of Cr treatments lead to numerically decreased in peroxidase, GSH, Ascorbic acid, ASPX, SOD of the coriander than the control. Furthermore, 100 µM of Cr treatments lead to numerically decreased in catalase of the coriander than the control. However, all level of Cr treatments led to numerically increase in lipid peroxidation of the coriander plant than the control. These adverse effects of chromium were encountered with increasing sulfur supply in the irrigation solution. Sulfur decreases the uptake of chromium in coriander plant. Sulfur also alleviates most harmful effect of chromium by enhancement of the antioxidative system (especially GSH content) in the coriander plant. The effect of sulfur was more effective at 50 µM Cr than 100 µM Cr. The two concentration of sulfur were both effective.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Chromium toxicity, coriander, sulfur

Isolation of Endophytes and Bioactive Assays for Embelia Species (Published)

Purpose – The purpose of this study was to compare the bioactivity of three Embelia species in terms of anti-oxidant powers. Emphasis was placed on the high level of anti-oxidant powers towards establishment of cancer therapy. The one with higher anti-oxidant powers was selected for further research. Comparative analysis of endophytes abundance was also done on the assumption that they may be endowing the plants with such anti-oxidant powers. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the phenolic content of the three selected plant species and their comparative antioxidant activities in relation to phenol content through Folin-ciocalteu, DPPH, and ABTS assays. The plant extracts were obtained by sonication and soxhlet method. Thin layer chromatography and HPLC was carried out to help estimate the number of compounds present in the plant species with most activity. Isolation of endophytes from the species on assumption that their presence might be crucial in bestowing the therapeutic value in these plants was also carried out. Findings –The study established that on average, the plant species with higher levels of phenol content had higher activity. E.basal was with high levels of phenol content of 220μg/ml GAE in the sonication extract and 113μg/ml GAE in methanol fraction of soxhlet extraction. At 1mg/ml concentration, DPPH and ABTS assays showed E.basal having highest activity in methanol extract of 61 and 51% respectfully. TLC results showed better separation of bands at hexane: Ethyl acetate ratio of 7:3 respectfully giving eight bands for hexane extract while ethyl acetate fraction gave better band separation at ethyl acetate : hexane : methanol ratio of 3:6:1 respectfully, giving six bands. HPLC gave related results. Different endophyte types were isolated and the most common found was Aspergillus terreus, A.versicolor and Fusarium solani. Research limitations/implications– The results obtained confirm the therapeutic potency of Embelia. The results suggest that the plant extract possesses certain constituents with antioxidant properties that can be used for the diseases such as cancer. It is assumed that the antioxidant activity shown in this in vitro study by the compounds can have similar antioxidant roles in vivo. This forms a basis for selection of the plant for further investigation in focus towards cancer therapy, the primary long term objective of the researcher.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Radical, Therapeutic Potency, endophytes


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lactating 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) on the interactions between the thyroid-axis and prooxidant/antioxidant markers in neonates. PTU was administered to female rats in drinking water (0.1% w/v) from birth to lactation day (LD) 30. The administration gave rise to a highly significant decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels and increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) level in both dams and their offspring at LDs 20 and 30 relative to control group. Also, in PTU group, a marked depression was observed in serum of neonatal growth hormone (GH). In this hypothyroid state, obvious elevation of oxidative markers (protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation, NO and H2O2) was observed at postnatal days (PNDs) 20 and 30, along with decreased activities of antioxidants markers (total thiol, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in neonatal cerebellum with respect to control group. Also, the administration caused some histopathological changes in neonatal cerebellar cortex, such as oedema, vacuoles, reduction of the Purkinje cells, and cellular fragmentations at PND 30. Thus, hypothyroidism in lactating PTU impairs the neonatal neuroendocrine system via production of free radicals, and this, may cause damage of proteins and lipids at the plasma membrane and cellular components delaying cerebellum development

Keywords: 6-propyl-2-thiouracil, Antioxidants, Cerebellum, Prooxidant, Rat newborns, Thyroid

Possible Anti-Hemolytic and Antioxidnt Role Of Ethanolic Extract Of Coriander On Irradiated Rats (Published)

Foods wealthy in antioxidants play an essential role in the prevention of diseases.Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a conventional annual herb selected for assessing antihemolytic and antioxidant properties. To study the effectiveness of Coriandrum sativum as an antihemolytic and antioxidant agent, the oxidative stress was induced in rats by gamma radiation exposure with 4 Gy shot dose after 14 days oral administration of coriander extract (600 mg/kg b.wt). Exposing rats with 4 Gy gamma rays was significantly decreased RBCs, WBCs and Platelets counts. But the percentage of segmented cells as well as the activity of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and endothline 1 (ET1) level was significantly increased after radiation exposure. Interestingly, among the tested parameter, the ethyl extract of coriander showed marked improvement in both haematological and biochemical changes. In conclusion, addition of coriander to food will increase the antioxidant content and may have potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation processes.

Keywords: Antihemolytic, Antioxidant, Antioxidants, Coriandrum sativum L., Flavonoids, Gamma radiation