Effect of Fermentation Time and Blending Ratio on Nutrients and Some Anti Nutrient Composition of Complementary Flour (Published)
Most complementary foods used in low income households are often characterized by low nutrient density, poor protein quality, low mineral bioavailability, and low energy. Fermentation and blending are an easily applicable approach to improve the nutrient content and mineral bioavailability of such complementary foods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop nutritionally adequate complementary flour with a safe level of antinutrients. Three fermentation times (0, 24, and 36 hr) and four blends of composite flour consisting of maize, haricot bean, and cooking banana, respectively, in the proportion of 65:20:15, 60:30:10, 50:35:15, 30:60:10 were used in the formulation with 100% maizeas control. Fermentation causes significant (P˂0.05) reduction in moisture from 9.00 to 6.59%, ash from 2.31 to 1.75%, crude fiber from 5.05 to 3.21%, iron from 5.14 to 4.21mg/100g, calcium from 54.42 to 43.75 mg/100g, condensed tannin from 46.93 to 31.32 mg/100g, phytate from 70.24 to 36.99 mg/100. On the other hand anincrement of crude fat from 5.12 to 6.43%, protein from 13.44 to 14.98%, total carbohydrate from 70.14 to 72.07%, energy from 380.39 to 398.83 Kcal/100g, zinc from 4.41 to 5.24 mg/100g, Vitamin C from 3.99 to 5.75 mg/ml were recorded as fermentation time increased. The proximate composition of composite flour ranged from 1.19 to 2.87% for ash, 6.93 to 7.50% for moisture, 5.31 to 6.23% for crude fat, 2.71 to 5.71% for crude fiber, 9.35% to 18.28% for protein, 66.04 to 77.16 % for carbohydrate and 385.11 to 395.28 Kcal/100g for energy value. Substitution of haricot bean and cooking banana to maize flour increased in (mg/100g) calcium content from 27.80 to 61.43, iron from 3.50 to 5.69, zinc from 3.07 to 6.24, phytate from 2.04 to107.21 and condensed tannin from 1.44 to 74.60 in formulated composite flour. Vitamin C content of complementary flour increased from 2.97 to 5.55 mg/ml as cooking banana proportion level increased. Based on the present finding fermentation and substitution of maize with haricot bean and cooking banana could be, recommended in the production of nutritious complementary food for older infants and young children.
Effect of fermentation duration on the nutritional and antinutritional content of watermelon seeds and sensory properties of their ogiri products (Published)
The proximate composition and antinutrients of fermented watermelon seeds (24-120h (1-5 days)) as well as the sensory attributes of soup prepared with the condiment (ogiri), produced from the fermented watermelon seeds were determined using standard methods. Protein increased from 11.79% in the fresh sample to 13.77% (96h fermented watermelon seeds) while the ash increased from 4.95% to 5.75% in the same sample. The comparative assessment of the proximate composition of the watermelon ogiri and commercial ogiri (control) showed that the watermelon ogiri had higher protein and fat content, 13.77% and 15.40% respectively than the commercial ogiri (9.98% and 7.96% respectively). The 96h fermented watermelon seeds had optimum increase in nutrients and was used as a condiment alongside with commercial ogiri from castor oil bean for oha soup preparation, both of which were subjected to sensory evaluation and they differed significantly (P<0.05). However, the control soup was most preferred by the panelists (7.68).
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND SOME ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS OF THREE EDIBLE MUSHROOM SPECIES IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA (Published)
Studies on nutritional composition and some anti-nutritional factors of three edible mushroom species in South Eastern Nigeria such as Termitomyces sp, Russula sp and Pleutotus tuber regium was carried out. Standard analytical methods were used to obtain the proximate composition, mineral composition, vitamin C content anti-nutritional factors (phytin, hydrocyanide, and tannin). The moisture content was highest in the Russula sp (90.2%) and lowest in the Pleutorus tuber regium (60.7%). On the average the crude protein was 41.7%, 30.3% and 15.4% on dry mass basis (dmb) for Termitomyces sp, Russula sp and Pleutorus tuber regium respectively, while the values for crude fibre were 5%, 17.9% and 13.5 respectively. Carbohydrate content ranged from30.2 to 55% while fat content ranged from 3.6% to 7.8% (dmb). Mineral composition indicated appreciable amounts of iron 2093.3 ppm in T. robustus and Rusular 1830.0 ppm and 2001.6 ppm respectively. Other mineral elements such as potasium and phosphorus were also appreciable. The least in all the species examined was Calcium. Vitamin C content was very low (0.01- 0.04 %) in all the species. Phytic acid content ranged from 0.94 – 0.75mg/100g, Hydrocyanic acid from 0.04 – 1.0mg/100g, and tannin was from 0.04 to 0.13 which is quite low to give adverse effect.