Background and Purpose: Antifungal effects of a Bifunctionalized Allene with unprotected hydroxy group (3-Diphenylphosphinoyl-5-methylhepta-3,4-dien-2-ol) (BA-3) on pathogenic yeast and fungi had been established. BA-3 (50mg/ml, 25mg/ml, 12.5mg/ml, 6.25mg/ml and 3.125mg/ml) exerted different inhibitory effect on different yearst and fungi cells in vitro. The effects of BA-3 on eukaryotic cells have not been studied yet. The present study was aimed to assess the antifungal activity of BA-3 on pathogenic yeast and fungi. Experimental approach: In vitro antifungal test: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium claviforme, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans 8673 and Candida glabrata 72 were treated for 24 hours with BA-3 (50mg/ml, 25mg/ml, 12.5mg/ml, 6.25mg/ml and 3.125mg/ml), Fluconazole (150 mg/ml) for yeast and Chlornitromycin (250 mg/ml) for fungi. The antifungal activity was assayed by the well diffusion method with digital caliper. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs): The MIC of BA-3, that shows antifungal activity, were determined by methods as described by  and MICs were read in μg/ml after over night incubation at 37oC. All experiments were made in replicate. Determination of Minimum fungal concentratio n(MFC):The MFC was carried out to check whether the test microbes were killed or only their growth was inhibited. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, Oxoid, Hampshire, UK) was prepared and sterilized at 121oC for 15 minutes, the medium was poured into sterile petri dishes and were allowed to cool and solidify. The contents of the MIC in the serial dilution were then subcultured on to the prepared medium, incubation was made at 37oC for 24 h, after which each plate was observed for colony growth. The lowest concentration of the BA-3 without a colony growth was recorded as the MFC. BA-3 had higher antifungal activity than tested antibiotic– Fluconazole for yeast and Chlornitromycin for fungi. Key Results: The results revealed variability in the inhibitory concentrations of BA-3 for given fungi and yeast. MIC of BA-3 at concentration 50 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth of yeast C. glabrata72 and C. albicans. In contrast, MIC of BA-3 at concentration 25 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth only of fungi A. niger. MFC of BA-3 at concentration 25 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth of C. glabrata and C. albicans 8673. MFC of BA-3 at concentration 12.5 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth only of fungi A. niger. For Fungi Imperfecta from P. claviformeand years S. cerevisae MFC it was not reported. Conclusions and Implications: Based on the results obtained we can conclude that the examined BA-3 has bactericidal activity towards both pathogenic yeast and Fungi Imperfecta, but in different concentrations.The BA-3 possesses biological activity, which is not well studied. We know only from literary data that they are used for inhibiting the biosynthesis of sterol from the pathogen responsible for Pneumocystis-cariniipneumonia (PCP) -a disease similar to AIDS. In our previous studies was shown that theBifunctionalized Allenes with protected hydroxy group (Dimethyl 3-methyl-1-[1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-ethyl]-hepta-1,2-dienephosphonate) (BA-1) and unprotected hydroxy group (Dimethyl 1-(1-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylpenta-1,2-dienephosphonate) (BA-2) exhibited antibacterial [8, 10] and antifungal activity [9, 11]. The results obtained show for the first time the existence of antifungal activity of BA-2 towards various pathogenic yeast and fungi.
Ten isolates, from 25 skin scraping of cutaneous infected site were diagnosed as Candida albicans. Infection with C.albicans was the highest among females than males with a rate of 80% and 20% respectively, and among patients with age 21-30 years(40%).In vitro antifungal susceptibility of ketoconazole, fluconazole,Nystatin, Amphotericin–B and Clotrimazole against clinical isolates of C. albicans indicate that the yeast isolates were susceptible (100%)to four antifungal ,while 3 out of isolates were resistance to fluconazole with inhalation zone 20.4mm.The in vitro study using the seed extracts of Carica papaya at concentrations 10%,25% and 50% inhibited the growth of C. albicans with rate 10mm, 9mm,8mm, respectively compatible with control(0%) 15mm. In vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice treated with the seed extract (2.5g/kg body weight ),liver showed infiltration in lymphocyte and hydropic degeneration, while spleen and kidney showed in filtration of lymphocyte ,compatible with negative control(not treatment) and positive control treated with ketoconazole .
FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIOFUNGICIDE (Published)
Biofungicide are biologically pest (fungi) control agent and one of the solutions for sustaining agricultural output and environmental quality. In order to implement these environmental friendly biofungicide on disease causing fungi of crop plant effectively, it can be important to play attention to way of formulation and application. Biofungicide have many advantages over chemical fungicide like it is biodegradable, cheaper and harmful residues are not detected. In present study, two pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria species were isolated from carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus) plant and anthurium leaves respectively. Bacillus bacterial strain was used to ascertain affectivity against these fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria species for antifungal activity. Both fungi growth were inhibited by this bacterial strain at different incubation period. Maximum inhibition percentage was found in Alternaria sp.than Fusarium oxysporum. Also it was made to evaluate the population dynamics of spawn based bacterial strain in different organic substrates so as to determine the shelf life of substrate based bioformulation of bacteria. There was a gradual decline in population in Bacillus bacteria in different carriers. After 90 days of storage maximum population of bacteria was observed in soil. Compost ranked 2nd talcum powder ranked 3rd but in case ash there was no growth after one month.