Tag Archives: : Antibiotic

A Linguistic Analysis of Selected Antibiotic Information Leaflets (Published)

A linguistic analysis of selected antibiotic information leaflets examined the language structures in composing the information of both manufacturing and marketing drug companies in Nigeria. These companies on which their leaflets are studied are Emzor, Jawa, Cika, Transglobe and Taylek. A descriptive design was adopted for the study and the models of Crystal and Davy (1985) and Leech and Short (1981) were used toanalyse the pattern of interlocking grammatical systems, from the smallest units of words and phrases to larger unit of sentences. The study examined and analysed syntactic structures in the formation of linguistic sentences used on the information leaflets, which varied in different sentence types that provide meaningful explanation about the chemical compositions of the produced drugs. Relatively, it determined the sense relations of the connected sentences and the graphological features contained on the leaflets. Conclusively, it was stated that the language used in the construction of sentence is complex in nature due to over use of chemical terms. It was recommended that leaflets should be written in simple sentence devoid of complexity for drug user’s comprehension.  

Keywords: : Antibiotic, Drug, Information Leaflets, Manufacturing, linguistic analysis

Performance Response and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Fed Dietary Antibiotics, Probiotics and Prebiotics (Published)

An experiment was conducted for six weeks to investigate the effect of antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics as feed additives in broiler diets to check for their effects on performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 250 unsexed Abor-acre broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 5 treatment groups containing 5 replicates with 10 birds per replicate. All birds were subjected to the same environmental conditions. The treatments were assigned into 5 dietary treatments containing 0.01% antibiotics, 0.06% probiotics, 0.1% probiotics and 0.2% prebiotics while the first treatment which served as the control did not include anything. Parameters on performance (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and the feed efficiency ratio) and carcass characteristics (live  and dressed weight, head, neck, breast, back, wings, drumsticks, thigh, shank, gizzard, lungs, liver, spleen, heart and bursa of fabricius) was evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure of SAS, 2010. It was observed that birds fed with probiotics had the highest weight gain (1218.15g and 1163.68g) and high feed intake, relatively high weight in wings when compared with other treatments. The inclusion of probiotics at certain level increases growth performance, relatively high value in some parts of carcass and the values are closer to those fed antibiotics. It thus shows that probiotics can be used to replace antibiotics.

Keywords: : Antibiotic, Broiler, Prebiotic., Probiotic

A HYDROXYETHYL-HEPTADIENYL PHOSPHINE OXIDE (HEHPO) ETHANOL SOLUTIONS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY (Published)

Background and Purpose: Antifungal effects of a HydroxyEthyl-Heptadieyl Phosphine Oxide (HEHPO) with unprotected hydroxy group (3-Diphenylphosphinoyl-5-methtlhepta-3,4-dien-2-ol) on pathogenic Gram-positives and Gram-negatives bacteria had been established. HEHPO (50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml and 3.125 mg/ml) exerted different inhibitory effect on different bacterial cells in vitro. The effects of HEHPO on prokaryotic cells have not been studied. The present study was aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of HEHPO on pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In vitro antimicrobial test: Escherichia coli 3398, Staphylococus aureus 745, Bacillus subtilis 6633, Salmonella Typhimurium 3591, Listeria monocytogen 863 and Enterobacter aerogenes 3691 were treated for 24 hours with HEHPO (50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml and 3.125 mg/ml), Sefpotec (250 mg/ml). The antibacterial activity was assayed by the well diffusion method with digital caliper.Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs): The MIC of HEHPO, that shows antimicrobial activity, were determined by methods as described by [17] and MICs were read in µg/ml after overnight incubation at 37oC. All experiments were made in replicate. Determination of Minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC): The MBC were carried out to check whether the test microbes were killed or only their growth was inhibited. Nutrient Agaragar was prepared and sterilized at 121oC for 15 minutes, the medium was poured into sterile petridishes and were allowed tocool and solidify. The contents of the MIC in the serial dilution were then subcultured onto the prepared medium, incubation was made at 37oC for24 h, after which each plate was observed forcolony growth. The lowest concentration of the HEHPO without a colony growth was recorded asthe MBC. HEHPO had higher antibacterial activity than tested antibiotic– Sefpotec. Key Results: The results revealed variability in the inhibitory concentrations of HEHPO for given bacteria. HEHPO at concentration 50 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth of Gram-negative bacteria E. coli 3398 (28.77 mm mean zone of inhibition), Е. aerogenes 3691 (20.87 mm mean zone of inhibition) and S. Typhimurium 745 (20.49 mm mean zone of inhibition). HEHPO did not inhibited Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus 745, B. subtilis 6633 and L. monocytogen 863. Conclusions and Implications: Based on the results obtained we can conclude that the examined HEAPO has bactericidal activity towards pathogenic bacteria, but in different concentrations. HEHPO possesses biological activity, which is not well studied. We know only from literary data that they are used for inhibiting the biosynthesis of sterol from the pathogen responsible for Pneumocystis-carinii pneumonia (PCP) -a disease similar to AIDS [2]. In our previous studies was shown that the Bifunctionalized Allene with protected hydroxy group (Dimethyl 3-methyl-1-[1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-ethyl]-hepta-1,2-dienephosphonate) (BA-1) exhibited antibacterial [8] and antifungal activity [9]. The results obtained show for the first time the existence of antifungal activity of HEHPO towards various pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: 4-dien-2-ol), : Antibiotic, Antibacterial activity, HydroxyEthyl-Heptadienyl Phosphine Oxide (HEHPO) (3-Diphenylphosphinoyl-5-methtlhepta-3

A BIFUNCTIONALIZED ALLENE ETHANOL EXTRACTS WITH ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY (Published)

Background and Purpose: Antifungal effects of a Bifunctionalized Allene with unprotected hydroxy group (3-Diphenylphosphinoyl-5-methylhepta-3,4-dien-2-ol) (BA-3) on pathogenic yeast and fungi had been established. BA-3 (50mg/ml, 25mg/ml, 12.5mg/ml, 6.25mg/ml and 3.125mg/ml) exerted different inhibitory effect on different yearst and fungi cells in vitro. The effects of BA-3 on eukaryotic cells have not been studied yet. The present study was aimed to assess the antifungal activity of BA-3 on pathogenic yeast and fungi. Experimental approach: In vitro antifungal test: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium claviforme, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans 8673 and Candida glabrata 72 were treated for 24 hours with BA-3 (50mg/ml, 25mg/ml, 12.5mg/ml, 6.25mg/ml and 3.125mg/ml), Fluconazole (150 mg/ml) for yeast and Chlornitromycin (250 mg/ml) for fungi. The antifungal activity was assayed by the well diffusion method with digital caliper. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs): The MIC of BA-3, that shows antifungal activity, were determined by methods as described by [18] and MICs were read in μg/ml after over night incubation at 37oC. All experiments were made in replicate. Determination of Minimum fungal concentratio n(MFC):The MFC was carried out to check whether the test microbes were killed or only their growth was inhibited. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, Oxoid, Hampshire, UK) was prepared and sterilized at 121oC for 15 minutes, the medium was poured into sterile petri dishes and were allowed to cool and solidify. The contents of the MIC in the serial dilution were then subcultured on to the prepared medium, incubation was made at 37oC for 24 h, after which each plate was observed for colony growth. The lowest concentration of the BA-3 without a colony growth was recorded as the MFC. BA-3 had higher antifungal activity than tested antibiotic– Fluconazole for yeast and Chlornitromycin for fungi. Key Results: The results revealed variability in the inhibitory concentrations of BA-3 for given fungi and yeast. MIC of BA-3 at concentration 50 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth of yeast C. glabrata72 and C. albicans. In contrast, MIC of BA-3 at concentration 25 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth only of fungi A. niger. MFC of BA-3 at concentration 25 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth of C. glabrata and C. albicans 8673. MFC of BA-3 at concentration 12.5 mg/ml for 24 hours notably inhibited growth only of fungi A. niger. For Fungi Imperfecta from P. claviformeand years S. cerevisae MFC it was not reported. Conclusions and Implications: Based on the results obtained we can conclude that the examined BA-3 has bactericidal activity towards both pathogenic yeast and Fungi Imperfecta, but in different concentrations.The BA-3 possesses biological activity, which is not well studied. We know only from literary data that they are used for inhibiting the biosynthesis of sterol from the pathogen responsible for Pneumocystis-cariniipneumonia (PCP) -a disease similar to AIDS[2]. In our previous studies was shown that theBifunctionalized Allenes with protected hydroxy group (Dimethyl 3-methyl-1-[1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-ethyl]-hepta-1,2-dienephosphonate) (BA-1) and unprotected hydroxy group (Dimethyl 1-(1-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylpenta-1,2-dienephosphonate) (BA-2) exhibited antibacterial [8, 10] and antifungal activity [9, 11]. The results obtained show for the first time the existence of antifungal activity of BA-2 towards various pathogenic yeast and fungi.

Keywords: 4-dien-2-ol), : Antibiotic, Antifungal activity, BA-3 (3-Diphenylphosphinoyl-5-methylhepta-3

EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTIC ON BACTERIAL FLORA IN MRIGAL FISH (CIRHINUS CIRHOSUS, BLOCH, 1795) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION (Published)

The Study was conducted on the effects of antibiotic on bacterial flora under laboratory condition. Oxytetracycline (OTC), the most widely used antibiotic, was fed to the Mrigal (average body weight 25g) at the rate of 2g/kg through fish diet and bacterial content was estimated for a period of 20days.Total 8 aquariums were used, where 3 aquariums for control and 5 aquariums for replication of the treatment. Physico-chemical parameters of aquarium water were determined where temperature,of culture aquariums were more or less similar.Before antibiotic treatment dissolve oxygen (DO), pH and total hardness was 7.80±0.10mg/l, 4.10±0.10, and890.00±10.00ppm, respectively which reached a value 9.90±0.10mg/l, 5.90±0.10and 710.00±10.00ppm, respectively indicating the changes after 20 days. Prior to antibiotic treatment,bacterial load was 2.90±0.06×103cfu/ml in aquarium water, 6.90±0.20×105cfu/g in fish gills, 4.70±0.10×107cfu/g in fish intestine,and 85.25±3.38×105in fish skin respectively which was Significantly reduced to 1.25±0.03×103cfu/ml in water, 5.42±0.20×105cfu/g in gills, 3.33±0.05×107 cfu/g in intestine, and 11.24±0.01×105in fish skin respectively after 20 daystreatment period. Water and fish samples were also analyzed for bacteria were completely absent before and after antibiotic treatments

Keywords: : Antibiotic, Bacterial load, Cirhinus cirhosus, Physico-chemical parameters

Effects of antibiotic on bacterial flora in mrigal fish (Cirhinus cirhosus, Bloch, 1795) under laboratory condition (Review Completed - Accepted)

The Study was conducted on the effects of antibiotic on bacterial flora under laboratory condition. Oxytetracycline (OTC), the most widely used antibiotic, was fed to the Mrigal (average body weight 25g) at the rate of 2g/kg through fish diet and bacterial content was estimated for a period of 20days.Total 8 aquariums were used, where 3 aquariums for control and 5 aquariums for replication of the treatment. Physico-chemical parameters of aquarium water were determined where temperature,of culture aquariums were more or less similar.Before antibiotic treatment dissolve oxygen (DO), pH and total hardness was 7.80±0.10mg/l, 4.10±0.10,

and890.00±10.00ppm, respectively which reached a value 9.90±0.10mg/l, 5.90±0.10and 710.00±10.00ppm, respectively indicating the changes after 20 days. Prior to antibiotic treatment,

bacterial load was 2.90±0.06×103cfu/ml in aquarium water, 6.90±0.20×105cfu/g in fish gills, 4.70±0.10×107cfu/g in fish intestine,and 85.25±3.38×105in fish skin respectively which was

Significantly reduced to 1.25±0.03×103cfu/ml in water, 5.42±0.20×105cfu/g in gills, 3.33±0.05×107 cfu/g in intestine, and 11.24±0.01×105in fish skin respectively after 20 daystreatment period. Water and fish samples were also analyzed for bacteria were completely absent before and after antibiotic treatments.

 

Keywords: : Antibiotic, Bacterial load, Cirhinus cirhosus, Physico-chemical parameters