Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Water Samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria (Published)
The quality of water resources in any ecosystem provides significant information about the available resources for supporting life in such ecosystem. The study therefore assessed the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. The study was carried out at Borgu sector of KLNP purposively selected based on the availability of perennial waterholes. Water samples were collected from four waterholes for two seasons (dry and wet). Water samples were subjected to physicochemical [temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, chloride, phosphate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and microbiological (total coliform and fungal counts) analyses using standard methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and T-test at α0.05 and compared with WHO permissible limits. The result showed that DO and COD levels of all the water samples were above the WHO guideline while there were significant seasonal variation in the values of temperature (t=4.93), EC (t=2.46), TDS (t=2.33), nitrate (t=3.66), chloride (t=4.91) and COD (t=4.23) in the waters sampled across the seasons of sampling. Salmonella / Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were observed to be absent while the total coliform and fungi counts were observed to be higher than the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The presence of thermo-tolerant such as Klebsiella sp and Enterobacter sp observed in the study may be an indication of faecal contamination. Periodical monitoring of the river water quality in Kainji Lake National Park is required to protect drinking water resources, encourage recreational activities and provide a good enabling environment for wildlife.
Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on the Quality of Shallow Groundwater of the Chad Basin in Maiduguri, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the effects of anthropogenic activities on the quality of shallow groundwater of the Chad Basin in Maiduguri, Nigeria by analyzing samples from 46 boreholes with a range of 40 m – 115 m, and an average depth of 60.54 m. The result of the analysis showed groundwater to be polluted in many boreholes. The pollution results from increased anthropogenic activities such as waste disposal, pit latrines and agricultural activities. About 22% of the sampled boreholes complied with the separation distances stipulated by the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency leaving a whopping 78% in contravention of the minimum separation distance. Major point pollution sources identified include soakaways, pit latrines, solid and liquid wastes, plant and animal waste products and mechanical workshops. Turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn and PO4 are physicochemical parameters found to have exceeded the standard set by the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Seven wells had exceeded turbidity and TDS standards, 11 and 34 wells had exceeded the standards for Fe, Mn and PO4, and Cr and Cu respectively. Densely populated parts of the city have high TDS and turbidity values. To improve groundwater quality in the study area, the paper suggests enforcement of the minimum standard spacing for boreholes and pit latrines. Also, it suggests environmental education that will make the public to be aware of the necessity of ensuring environmental health which will ensure quality of groundwater and proper disposal of solid wastes.
Water samples were collected from seven different locations along the Aba River close to various human, industrial, commercial and domestic activities. The heavy metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The result revealed that the concentration of some heavy metals like Iron, Copper, Manganese and Chromium are above the WHO and FMEnv Standard limits for surface water. These high values could be attributed to indiscriminate disposal of wastes into the river. The various parameters of the water samples from the control site (Okpu-Umuobu) were significantly different from those of locations close to the major industrial/commercial activities. This confirms the impact of human activities on the quality of the Aba River. The impacts of dredging and sand mining in and along the river bank were obvious. These activities have an adverse effect on the environment and ecology, speeding up flow and potentially increasing the risk of flooding downstream. This also has the potential to damage ecology by directly affecting its physical habitat, disrupting riverine processes and reduced connectivity with the floodplain. It is therefore recommended that effluent treatment plants be installed to treat waste generated before they are discharged into the stream as well as regular monitoring of the River should be encouraged by the regulatory bodies.