Ogoni-Andoni War, 1993: The Role of Dialogue in Inter-Group Relations (Published)
The focus of this paper is to examine the Ogoni-Andoni war of 1993 with respect to the role of dialogue in inter-group relations. The Andoni and Ogoni are immediate neighbours in the Eastern Niger Delta of Nigeria. Both ethnic groups have aged long relationship characterized by peace, conflict, crisis and war. The immediate cause of the 1993 Ogoni-Andoni war was attributed to the violent activities of the militant wing of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People during their agitation for Ogoni Kingdom and other environmental issues. In the 20thcentury the two ethnic groups fought wars at interval of twenty years; 1933, 1953, 1973, 1993. The war had great consequences on both ethnic groups which called for dialogue to end it. The paper explored primary and secondary sources to document the war history. This paper found out that the Ataba (Andoni)-Ogoni Peace Conference was the platform for the inter-ethnic dialogue which brought the war to an end by late 1994. Their relationship was restored fully by 1995. The Peace Conference forestalled subsequent crisis related development which would have snowballed into another full scale war between the Ogoni and Andoni in the 21stcentury. It concluded that dialogue did not only end the war but it sustained and enhanced inter-group relations between Andoni and Ogoni over twenty years today.
Citation: Benson R. M. (2023) Ogoni-Andoni War, 1993: The Role of Dialogue in Inter-Group Relations, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.11, No.1, pp.6-17
Keywords: Andoni, Dialogue, Ogoni, Relations, Role, inter-group
Effectiveness of Reproductive Health Education among In-School Adolescents in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
Reproductive health knowledge is significant in the growth and development of young people and this significantly impact on their educational and personal outcome as they proceed to adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of reproductive health education among in-school adolescents in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study used a randomized control-group pretest-posttest research design. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select samples for the study. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire with reliability co-efficient of 0.89 for knowledge questions. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for windows (Version 21). Data were presented using descriptive statistics to answer research questions and inferential statistics such as ANOVA was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Cohen criterion for interpretation of the eta value was used to interpret the effectiveness of reproductive health education with 0.01 as small effect, 0.06 moderate effect, and 0.14 as large effect. The study findings indicated that intervention group had a higher mean knowledge score 23.76±2.98 while the control group had a mean score of 22.31±22.3. The study recommended that teachers of senior secondary schools should periodically use mixed teaching method to better incorporate old and young adolescents to increase better reproductive outcomes.
Citation: Ene-Bongilli, G. and Akoko, S. (2022) Effectiveness of Reproductive Health Education among In-School Adolescents in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, International Journal of Cell, Animal Biology and Genetics, Vol.7, No.1, pp., 39-51,
Keywords: Andoni, Nigeria, Rivers State, reproductive health education, school adolescents