Tag Archives: and Gender

Classroom Teachers’ Perceptions of Workplace Relationship Practices in Rural Ghanaian Basic Schools (Published)

In spite of accrued benefits of workplace relationships for organisations, Ghanaian management literature seem oblivious of it in today’s knowledge society where human capital has been estimated as a crucial production factor. Consequently, the current study seeks to explore the construct of workplace relationship between classroom teachers and head teachers in a rural Ghanaian setting using 136 survey data randomly chosen from the Ekumfi Education District. A survey instrument with overall alpha of 0.9 was mainly used to test three hypotheses and one research question. Statistical findings practically reveal that 22 per cent of classroom teachers’ performances are explained by job stress and propensity to leave as a result of workplace relationship with head teachers in the Ekumfi District. In addition, gender was not a distinguishing factor in workplace relationship management amongst classroom teachers. The researcher concludes, in search of variables predicting teacher productivity, relationship management constitutes significant force in the equation. Hence, school administrators and other stakeholders interested in teachers’ morale should intensify their education and build head teachers skills in workplace relationships management. Above all, contribution of this paper to educational policy formulation and evaluation are pointed out.

Keywords: Job Stress, and Gender, propensity to leave, teacher workplace relationship


The entire systems of social categorization agree to for two sexes – male and female. But some societies explicitly articulate three sex categories, socially distinguishing hermaphrodites as a third, mixed intermediary, or alternate sex. Other societies seems to give consent to additional categories, allowing for a range of mixed, crossed, complex, or fluid identities in between male and female. Indian culture is based on the notion that there are two opposite sexes with distinct culturally approved gender characteristics. Using this binary system allows little tolerance for cultural and social variances of what is perceived to be masculine or feminine. Indian society is much more focused on sexual behaviour rather than social role choices and expectations. In Indian culture some people who are merely dissatisfied with their gender role often feel pressured to anatomically become the other sex through surgery. Some people do not believe that their gender identity corresponds to their biological sex, namely transgender people, including transsexual people and many inter-sexed individuals as well. Consequently, complications arise when society insists that an individual adopt a manner of social expression i.e. gender role which is based on sex. Sexuality, or gender identity, may be all about the cultural response to the individual. Some people may be born with confusing sexuality and they need to find the gender role that fits with their nature, and others find that the male/female, man/woman roles are not sufficient to embrace their gender/sexual role. The present paper examines how questions pertaining to sexual orientation and gender expression are inter-connected with the politics of citizenship. It also seeks to critically examine the social understandings of sexual identity and the powerful role that it plays in the arenas of family, personal relationships, the economy, work, the media, health, security and the environment. Through an examination of the selected literary texts in Indian writings in English, we will interrogate the ways in which heteronormativity permeates a variety of institutions in the public sphere. We may find answers and ways to respond that would embrace all human beings.

Keywords: Homosexuality, Sexual Orientation, Sexuality, Transgender, and Gender