Tag Archives: Anambra State

Extent of Utilization of E-Marketing Application by Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Anambra State (Published)

This study focused on the extent of Utilization of E-Marketing Applications by small and medium enterprises in Anambra state, Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of 1,846 SMEs (owners/managers) in the area. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the study. A sample of 1,473 SMEs managers were randomly selected using stratified random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection.  Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Finding of the study indicated that SMES in South Eastern Nigeria utilize e-commerce and e-invoicing marketing applications in their operations to a low extent.  Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that SMEs owners/managers should be trained by business schools and business consultancy firms on how to use e-marketing applications. The importance of e-marketing should be clearly spelt out for them so that they can acquire the skills to fully integrate into their business operations.

Citation: Igboanugo, Amaka Regina  and Obioma, Uzoka Agatha (2022)  Extent of Utilization of E-Marketing Application by Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Anambra State, European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, Vol.10, No.6, pp.,1-9,


Keywords: Anambra State, Small and Medium Scale enterprises., Utilization, e-marketing application

Coping Behaviour among Retirees in Anambra State: Influence of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control (Published)

The study focused on locus-of-control and self-esteem vis-à-vis retirees’ coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study used Ways of Coping Checklist, Index of Self-Esteem, and Nowicki-Strictland Locus-of-Control Scale; cross-sectional factorial designs; two-way ANOVA statistics, random and snow-balling samplings, 56 retirees (26 males/30 females), 60-81 years retirees’ age-range and SD=1.98. Results: Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria; Self-esteem and locus-of-control combined had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping systems; Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively significantly influenced only the retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; Self-esteem, locus-of-control, and their combined effects contributed 98%, 98%, and 90% respectively to retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; finally, Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively did not significantly influence retirees’problem-focused coping”, “social-support seeking coping”, “self-blame coping”, and “wishful-thinking coping” elements of coping system. Recommendations: Effective coping with retirement should involve improved self-esteem, and constructive/positive locus-of-control of retirees. 

Keywords: Anambra State, Nigeria, Retirees, coping-behaviour, locus of control, self-esteem

Self-Concept and Its Influence on Antisocial Behaviour-Personality of Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) Personnel in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined “self-concept and its influence on antisocial behaviour/personality of Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) personnel in Awka, Anambra State”, with 327 participants sampled through cluster and incidental methods. Valid/reliable Self-Concept and Psychopathic Deviant Scales measured self-concept and antisocial behaviours respectively, adopting cross-sectional design and ANCOVA statistics. Findings: Self-concept significantly contributed to NSCDC personnel’s antisocial personality (p< .001≥ .000; N = 327; Fs = 3.057, 3.551, 4.198, & 12.950). Self-concept did not significantly influence the personnel’s psychopathic personality (p< .001≥ .000; F = .934; N = 327). Self-concept significantly influenced the personnel’s antisocial personality (p< .001≥ .000; F = 5.691; N = 327), criminal behaviour (p< .001≥ .000; F = 6.797; N = 327), fraudulent behaviour (p< .001≥ .000; F = 10.559; N = 327), and delinquency (p< .001≥ .000; F = 5.610; N = 327). Recommendation: NSCDC should inculcate healthy/ethnics-oriented self-concepts in the personnel.

Keywords: Anambra State, Civil Defence, NSCDC, Nigeria, Personality, Self-Concept, antisocial behavior

Agricultural Budgeting in Anambra State: its’ implication for Sustainable Economic Development (Published)

This work was embarked upon with a view to determining agricultural budgeting over the years and its implication for sustainable economic development. Designed essentially as a descriptive survey, it is an ex-post-facto study.  Secondary data used for the study were sourced from the official records and documents of Anambra State Government Nigeria. Data were analyzed using the time series components of trend and moving averages using E-view.  Results indicated the following: there was no correspondence between estimated agricultural revenue and actual expenditure in the budget of Anambra State Government – hence large deficits were recorded. There was a mismatch between planned expenditure with remarkably high values that was observed in the Anambra State budget. The trend in the growth of actual agricultural expenditure over the period was upward sloping, rising slowly and steadily. The trend in the growth of actual revenue of the Anambra State Government budget over the period was upward sloping, rising sharply at first, and following an irregular pattern as it progresses. It was concluded that need outgrow availability of resources in Anambra State. However the fact remains that the problem was more of managerial than it was that of availability of resources. It is therefore recommended that, among other things, agricultural activities must be monitored so as to ensure proper implementation.

Keywords: Anambra State, Economic Development, Sustainable Development, agricultural budgeting

Fear of Negative Evaluation and Self-Efficacy as Social-Psychological Predictors of Job Involvement of Physically Challenged Persons in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) (Published)

The study investigated fear of negative evaluation and self-efficacy vis-à-vis job-involvement of physically challenged persons in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra). Participants were 32 sampled through multisystem sampling. Data were collected using valid/reliable Fear of Negative Evaluation, Self-Efficacy, and Job-Involvement Scales. The study had predictive design with regression statistics. Findings were that for physically challenged persons in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra): There was high fear of negative evaluation; Self-efficacy was relatively stable; Job-involvement was below average; Fear of negative evaluation significantly/positively correlated with their job-involvement; Self-efficacy significantly/positively correlated with their job-involvement; Fear of negative evaluation significantly/positively predicted job-involvement; and Self-efficacy significantly/positively predicted job-involvement. Recommendations: Self-efficacy of physically challenged persons should be boosted. Physically challenged persons should improve functional prowess, and refrain from self-pity.

Keywords: Anambra State, Job Involvement, Physically Challenged, Self-Efficacy, eastern-Nigeria (Biafra), fear-of-negative-evaluation

Life-Style and University Type as “Predisposers” To Stress among University Academics in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

Objectives of the study were to investigate lecturers’ life-style and university ownership variables, and stress experiences accompanying the variables. Participants (110) were sampled using incidental and cluster techniques: Federal University (46), State University (42), and Private University (22), Professors (12), Associate Professors (9), Senior Lecturers (30), Lecturer 1 (24), Lecturer 2 (14), and Assistant Lecturers (21) of cross-sectional and factorial designs, with multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistics. Data were collected using valid/reliable life-style, and stress experience inventories of 5-points Likert measurements respectively. Findings were: Life-style significantly predisposed lecturers to stress; life-style significantly predisposed lecturers to stress arising from relationship with colleagues, research stress, and teaching task stress; combination of life-style and university type significantly contributed to lecturers’ stress experiences; finally, variations in the stress were caused by work environment stressors. Recommendations were for lecturers to adopt healthy life-style, while university work environment be improved.

Keywords: Anambra State, Nigeria, Stress, academics/lecturers, life-style, university-type

Dominance of Spouses of Igbo Households in Purchase Decision of Household Goods in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The objective of the study was to determine the extent of influence of couples in the purchase decision of selected household products/services – children schooling, sitting room sofa, television, refrigerator, car/motor-cycle and land property, for the family. 200 couples were sampled. Data were analyzed in measures of central tendency, and t-tests statistics which results indicated: (1) in need recognition stage of household purchase decision, sitting room sofa, television, car/motorcycle and land property are significantly husband-dominant; refrigerator is significantly wife-dominant; children-schooling is not statistically significant joint decision; (2) in information search stage, children-schooling and sitting room sofa are significantly low influence joint decision; television, car/motorcycle and land property are significantly husband dominant; refrigerator is low influence joint decision and not significant and; (3) in the final decision stage, children-schooling, sitting room sofa, television, car/motorcycle and land property are significantly husband-dominant. Given that decision for almost all the products was husband-dominant, Anambra State of Nigeria was concluded a patriarchal – husband-dominant society. Therefore, marketers of major household goods/services in the area should direct their marketing campaigns majorly at the husbands.

Keywords: Anambra State, Purchase decision, household goods, spousal influence

Development of Dress Patterns for Women with Figure Flaws in Anambra State (Published)

The aim of this study was to produce dress patterns for women with figure flaws in Anambra State. A sample of ninety teaching and non-teaching female staff with obvious figure flaws falling into 3-size categories was purposively selected for the study. The study involved taking body measurements, drafting, adapting, altering, cutting out and assembling the garment pieces. After which garments were modeled by the models. Judges and the models assessed the clothing fit and wearing comfort. The obtained data from the assessment instruments were analyzed using mean. Findings from the study showed that the widest distribution of values indicative of figure flaws were found in the bust, waist, and hips. The widest alterations to the drafted patterns related to the hips, waist and bust. The average rating of the clothing fit and comfort by the judges and models were satisfactory respectively. The block patterns developed are recommended for professional tailors and fashion designers.

Keywords: Anambra State, Development, Women, dress patterns, figure, flaws

Organizational Effectiveness in Media Industry: A Study of Public and Private Media Organizations in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra). (Published)

The study examined “organizational effectiveness in media industry: A study of public and private media organizations in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria (Biafra)”. Data were collected with valid/reliable “Organizational Effectiveness Model Inventory”, through multi-stage sampling using 2×4 factorial designs. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and descriptive statistics were used. Results at p<.05 found no significant differences for organization type and overall organization effectiveness. Contrarily, between-subjects tests were significant for organization type and “goal attainment” and “strategic constituency” organizational effectiveness, but not significant for organization type and the “system resources” and “internal process” organizational effectiveness. Private media organizations accounted between 13% – 17% and 14% – 18% organizational effectiveness for “goal attainment” and “strategic constituency” dimensions respectively than public media organizations. Findings’ major implication is that ownership of media industry does not influence archived organizational effectiveness. Improvement is recommended on the “system resources” and “internal process” organizational effectiveness.

Keywords: Anambra State, Biafra, Eastern Nigeria, Media, Organizational effectiveness

Analysis of the Performance of Commercial and Residential Property Investments in Onitsha Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

Real estate investment in urban areas in Nigeria like Onitsha are done mostly by private investors; and this group of investors put considerable sums of money into real estate investments annually without investor’s knowledge and understanding of the performance of the sectors to provide basis for better investment decision and risk management for real estate investors in Onitsha and in other comparable location in Nigeria. This article therefore examined the performance of commercial property investments and residential property investment in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. The comparative analysis of the performance of these two types of property investments within the period of nine (9) years (2007to 2016) was conducted, focusing on the annual returns, risk profile and risk-return profile. Data for the study consist of rental and capital values of commercial and residential property investments in the study area and were sourced from the Estate Surveying and Valuation firms practicing in the study area. Data collection was analyzed using Arithmetic Mean Return (AMRR), Geometric Mean Return (GMRR), Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation. The average rental values and capital of both residential and commercial property investment were assessed in order to arrive at the annual returns (Arithmetic mean rate of return and Geometric mean rate of return). The risk inherent (Standard Deviation) and the risk-return profile (Coefficient of Variation) of both residential and commercial property investments were equally ascertained and determined respectively. The results showed that commercial property investment performed better than residential property investment within the period studied with an annual return of 19% as against 17% for residential property investment. On the contrary, residential property investment performed better in terms of risk-return profiles within the period under study with 11.34% of risk and 0.67 risk-returns as against 15.88% of risk and 0.84% risk-return for commercial property investment. The performance indicators as shown by this parameter indicate that property investments in Onitsha are very viable but that commercial property investments perform better in return than residential property investment. The study concluded that a risk avert investor will prefer to invest in residential property properties than commercial properties, whereas, an investor who is a risk taker will choose to invest in commercial properties than residential properties not minding the higher risk involve as shown in this work. Investors in commercial properties are sure of their rents as at when due as tenants in commercial properties will prefer to protect their goodwill than vacating the premises; unlike tenants in residential properties who has no goodwill to protect in such premises and so become troublesome in paying their subsequent rents after the first rent has been collected. This article finally recommended that a periodic portfolio performance analysis be done from time to time to aid property portfolio managers or investors in selecting the investment return and reduction of the association risk.

Keywords: Anambra State, Commercial Property Investment, Comparative Analysis, Onitsha, Performance Evaluation, Residential Property Investment

Assessment of Building Survey as a Tool for Building Maintenance Program a Study of Awka, Anambra State (Published)

Sequel to the inefficiencies found in building maintenance, which has reduced the satisfaction level and resulted in many ugly incidents like building collapse and fast dilapidation, this work was conceived with the aim of evaluating the building survey as a tool for efficient building maintenance. The study adopted a survey design involving literature review, personal interviews and questionnaire survey. The collated data was analyzed in percentages and it was found that building survey is a very vital tool in building maintenance and it has been neglected in the study area. The study therefore recommend that building survey should be put into consideration before any maintenance work will be carried out, both in private and public buildings and there should be full funding and monitoring of the process to yield better results.

Keywords: Anambra State, Assessment, Awka, Building Survey, Building maintenance, Program

Empirical Analysis on Road Traffic Crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria: Accident Prediction Modeling Using Regression Approach (Published)

Road traffic crashes in Anambra State Nigeria was considered in this paper, secondary data were mainly used, and was sourced from the office of the Federal Road Safety Corps; Policy, Research and Statistics Department RSHQ Abuja. Regression Analysis was applied on the data, with the aim of identifying how well a set of independent variables (Mechanical Fault, Reckless Driving and Over-Loading) is able to predict Road Accident in Anambra State, indicating, the best predictor of Road Accident in the state, knowing if Overloading is still able to predict a significant amount of the variance in Road Accident when Mechanical Fault and Reckless Driving is controlled for and to develop an accident prediction model. The result shows no violation to the assumptions of Normality, Homoscedasticity, Independence, Linearity, Multicollinearity and Outliers. The three predictors significantly predicted road accident { F(3,9) = 14.132, p-value =0.001 < 0.005 }, R2adjusted= 0.767; 76.7% , of the total variance in road accident cases was explained by the model, Mechanical Fault made the strongest unique significant contribution to explaining road accident cases when the variance explained by all other variables in the model  is controlled for (βeta value = 0.841, p-value = 0.001), Reckless driving made less of a contribution (βeta value =0.591, p-value = 0.004), while overloading did not make a significant contribution to the prediction of road accident when the variance explained by other variables in the model is controlled for (βeta value = 0.173, p-value = 0.228). The developed prediction model is; Number of Road Accident = 6.407 + 1.300Reckless Driving + 1.959Mechanical Fault + 0.733Overloading

Keywords: Anambra State, Empirical Analysis, Nigeria; Accident Prediction Modeling, Regression Approach, Road Traffic Crashes


This study assessed the environmental effects of 2012 floods in Umuleri, Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State were investigated using questionnaire survey, with a view to ascertaining its implications on the inhabitants of the area. The data were generated and analyzed using Independent samples T-test and Mann-Whitney U-test statistical technique. The result revealed that the 2012 floods were mostly caused by heavy rainfall and anthropogenic activities such as construction on flood plains. The study also showed that the inhabitants experienced effects such as displacement from homes, submerging of farmland, loss of income, destruction of infrastructures, scarcity of food, overcrowding in shelter camps and spread of communicable diseases. Consequently, since flood has been ravaging the area recently, further research to develop flood hazard map of the area and enlightenment of the residents on flood issues was recommended.

Keywords: 2012 Floods In Umuleri, Anambra, Anambra State, East Local Government Area, Environmental Effects, Nigeria


The study assessed the causes of 2012 flood in Aguleri and Umuleri in Anambra East Local Government Area. In doing this, questionnaire was administered randomly to the residents. The data generated were analyzed using frequency/percentage tabulation and Mann-Whitney U-Test statistical techniques. The following hypothesis was tested: (1) there is no significant difference between the causative factors of 2012 floods in the two communities. The results showed that there is no serious variation between the causes of 2012 flood in the two communities. In addition, the result also proved that anthropogenic activities induced the 2012 flood in the community. Consequent upon the findings, the study recommended that there should be flood hazard mapping in order to ascertain areas prone to flooding, so as to reduce the occurrence of flood in the area. It further recommended that the river channels in the area be constantly dredged from time to time so as to increase their capacity for retaining water. Moreover, it recommended that the inhabitants of the area be enlightened on the causes of flood. Finally, it recommended that environmental laws, especially those relating to flood occurrence and management, and land-use be enforced. In addition, areas of future research should be: (1) to ascertain the after-effect (post effect) of flooding on agriculture in the area; and (2) to obtain a flood hazard map for the entire Anambra State, especially the Anambra East Local Government Area, so as to know the areas prone to flooding, and to adopt adequate flood management techniques.

Keywords: Aguleri, Anambra East Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, The Causes of 2012 Floods, Umuleri