The period between 2003 and 2009 witnessed an intensification of military insurgency and a dangerous degeneration of the conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The attacks on the oil production facilities by insurgent groups, sabotage by criminal syndicates and a flourishing kidnapping industry had transformed the Niger Delta from a region of political and social instability into a virtual war zone. Oil production had declined by over a million barrels, to about 1.6 million barrels per day. Major oil companies started relocating or shutting down their facilities from the region as the violence, which eventually spread to the other parts of the country could not be repressed by the heavily armed Joint Task Force (JTF) of the Nigerian Military. The implication of the crisis for the political and economic survival of Nigeria is believed to have propelled the Yar’adua administration in mid-2009 to offer ‘amnesty’ to the militants as part of a negotiated process of ending the insurgency in the region, while the issues in the conflict were being addressed by the government. This novel and unprecedented strategy was and still remains controversial but many agree that the problem of insurgency in the region was reasonably contained for several years following the offer of amnesty. This paper is an attempt to analyze the relevance of this policy as a negotiation strategy and a conflict management tool that can be used for future interventions in similar conflicts within the country and across the continent.
Tax evasion presents a serious problem for a number of countries. Every year, governments lose large amounts of potential revenue because citizens, in some manner avoid paying taxes. To address the problem of tax evasion, many countries have implemented tax amnesty programs over the years. More and more tax administrators are coming up with diverse products and innovations to raise government revenues to meet daunting challenges in the face of slow growth rate in trade and investment. In this paper we shall examined the successes and failures of amnesty in curbing other crimes and also see if it can be applied to cases of taxation in Nigeria.
Management of Amnesty Programme for Sustainable Livelihood in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria: Challenges and Policy Action (Review Completed - Accepted)
Many years of deprivation, marginalization and cheating of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria led to the youth in attempt to find solution to the neglect formed themselves into groups which became aggressive as a result of the use of arms in approach and operation that brought about a near chaos environment in the region. As a response to curb the deplorable security situation in the region, the federal government of Nigeria initiated and pronounced the Niger Delta Amnesty Programme (NDAP). This study attempted to assess the success of the amnesty programme to deliver a sustainable livelihood for the repentant ex-militants and restore peace and security in the region. The study employed questionnaire and interview methods randomly administered in three of the nine states of the region. The study observed reoccurrence of crime, high consumption of illicit drugs, threat to local government council executives and intra/inter cult conflicts among others in the region. Its recommendations included decentralization of the amnesty rehabilitation camps and adoption of definite goals for the amnesty programe in order to achieve sustainable peace and livelihood in the region