Controlling Poultry House Ammonia Emmissions Using Gas Permeable Membrane Systems (Published)
An experiment was conducted to investigate the use of gas-permeable membrane systems to capture and recover ammonia from poultry houses. The objectives of the experiment were: 1) to evaluate the performance of two gas-permeable membrane ammonia-capturing system models and 2) to assess ammonia emission impact on birds’ mortality, and to investigate the relationship between birds age and ammonia emission in rooms equipped with and without these systems. The systems were developed and placed inside a 6.0 m X 6.0 m room in a research poultry house. The systems were started by preparing 5N sulfuric acid in an acid tank and a pH 1 solution in a concentration tank. Acids were added to the concentration tank manually to achieve a pH of 2.0, and then the pH pump controller and the membrane circulation modules were used to bring the pH back to 1. After NH3 gas passed through the membrane and was in contact with the acidic solution, ammonium (NH4+) salt was formed, which was retained and concentrated in the acidic solution. The experiment consisted of two treatments namely: 1) Control (room without membrane systems (RWOMS), and 2) treatment (room with both membrane systems (RWMS). Each room contained 400 birds. The results demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) difference of air ammonia concentration between rooms and from poultry litter. Among the membrane systems, tubular membrane system had the greatest mean NH4+ recovery compared to the flat membrane system. The difference was highly significant (p<0.01). Birds’ mortality rate was decreased by ~46.6% in room with the installed systems indicating that reduced ammonia resulted in improved bird survival. The findings of this study indicate that the membrane systems can be an effect method of reducing ammonia concentration in poultry houses with an added advantage of retaining ammonium salt has plant food.
Effects of Human and Animal Urine on Nitriding for Improved Hardness Property of Aluminium Alloy Materials (Published)
The study was carried out to determine the effect of human and animal urine on nitriding for improved mechanical properties of aluminium alloy material. The study adopted a 2×3 factorial design. The population comprised alloy materials that contain aluminium as elemental metal in its content. The specimens of 24 pieces of aluminium alloy materials were cut from 70mm diameter aluminium alloy machined to 50mm diameter. Human urine was obtained from urine houses built in Port Harcourt while animal urine was got from cattle butchers also in Port Harcourt. Twelve specimens were heated to a temperature of 5000C in a cylinder containing human urine for 4, 5, and 6 hours respectively while another 12 specimens were also heated to the same temperature in a cylinder containing animal urine for 4, 5 and 6 hours respectively. In either case, no quenching was applied, rather the materials were allowed to cool naturally. Direct testing and measurement of nitrided specimens were carried out using Brinell testing machine. The research question that guided the study was answered using mean while the null hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. It was found from the study that human and animal urine as local ammonia increased the hardness of aluminium alloy material. Animal urine is more effective than human urine on nitriding, nitriding time showed significant effect on hardness of aluminium alloy material.