Tag Archives: Alcohol

Magnitude to which selected predictors contribute to alcohol and cigarette use among male students of public day secondary schools in Daura municipal, Kastina state (Published)

The increase in alcohol and cigarettes use among young people than any population strata is of great concern. The use of alcohol that began in African traditional society as an activity for political, religious, cultural and social relations has evolved over time into a problem of dependence and addiction. Despite concerted prevention efforts, studies have been conducted to unravel etiological complexities of this drugs use problem. This study sought to examine the extent to which the family predictors, peer-group influence, exposure to pro-alcohol and cigarette mass media content and level of self-esteem contribute to the use of alcohol and cigarettes among male students in public day secondary schools in Dauru municipality, Kastina. To achieve this purpose, ex post factor research design was used and independent variables were studied retrospectively. Multistage cluster, probability proportionate to size and purposive sampling methods were used to select the participating schools and respondents. A sample size of 327 students was selected from total population of 2279 from nine sampled schools. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on students ‘demographic and background characteristics, level of self-reported alcohol and cigarettes use and social influence [ parents, siblings’ and peers and exposure to pro-alcohol and cigarettes mass media content ] that promote use of these drugs. Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used to measure respondents ‘self-esteem. Data was analyzed by used of frequencies, percentages, cross-tabulation, chi-square and logical regression. SPSS version 15.0 computer program was used to aid in data analysis. The study established that peer-group influence had the greatest contribution to high alcohol and cigarettes use, followed by family predictors accounted for 44% of high alcohol and cigarettes use collectively. These findings may be useful in prioritizing targets for prevention and intervention programs.

Keywords: Alcohol, Family predictors, Mass Media, Parental influence., cigarette use, self-esteem

Models and Approaches to Alcohol and Drug Addiction Rehabilitation in Kenya (Published)

Drug addiction is a complex illness. It is characterized by intense and, at times, uncontrollable drug craving, along with compulsive drug seeking and use that persist even in the face of devastating consequences. Counsellors therefore need to study and develop multi-faceted drug intervention models that are “drug specific” to the addiction at hand. One size does not fit all. This paper looks at the various approaches to rehabilitation used to enhance recovery of alcoholics and drug abusers in registered inpatient rehabilitation centres in Kenya. A descriptive study that used a qualitative approach was carried out. The study focused on all the residential drug rehabilitation centres in and around Nairobi. The Study Sample included the counselors directly dealing with the treatment of clients in these centres. A two level questionnaire was used to establish the treatment models used in the various in patient drug rehabilitation centres from the respondents, using a qualitative key informant interview. Data was analysed and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found out that various models of treatment were used for treatment of clients admitted in drug rehabilitation centres in Nairobi. The commonly used models included the 12 step program of the Minnesota model, Therapeutic community model, Medical model and in most places a mixture of the various models.

Keywords: Addiction, Alcohol, Drug, Rehabilitation, Treatment models

Different Processing Conditions Affect Palm (Thot Not) Wine Fermentation (Under Review)

Thot Not (coconut palm) trees are an integral part of the Khmer community in Van Giao Commune, Tinh Bien District, An Giang Province, Vietnam. Palm wine can be obtained from the young inflorescence either male (or) female ones palm wine is alcoholic beverage that are made by fermenting the sugary sap from various palm plants. It is collected by tapping the top of the trunk by felling the palm tree and boring a hole into the trunk it is a cloudy whitish beverage with a sweet alcoholic taste and very short shelf life of only one day, the wine is consumed in a variety of flavors varying foam sweet unfermented to sour, fermented and vinegary there are various products. Palm sap can be fermented (or) processed into an alcoholic beverage it just needs the correct yeasts, temperature and processing conditions. In our research, we investigate three yeast strains and decide to choose two strains Rh and C1 to get good sensory quality wine. Between Rh and C1, the first is superior to the later based on both sensory value and fermenting time (14 days for Rh and 18 days for C1). Althoug the strain C1 having longer fermenting time, it creates specific flavor and more CO2 so it’s suitable for sparking wine. From yeast strain Sacharomycess cerevisiae, pretreatment 75 ÷ 800C in 15 minutes, initial pH 5.0 ÷ 5.5, dry matter 20 ÷ 22% Brix, fermenting temperature 300C, palm wine is well fermented to 11.5 – 12.5% alcohol

Keywords: : Palm Wine, Alcohol, Pretreatment, Processing Condition, Yeast