This article aims to shed light to the history and development of property regimes in Albania by analyzing marital property regime since the approval of the Civil Code in 1929, the Code of 1966 and 1982, while comparing the current Code of family, without putting on the side some comparing observations of the marital with loyalty, that of the power between a man and woman, this because of the conservatism of the society at the time. While between 1948-1966 accorning the development of the property regime of marital, it is noticed that the development of the relationships in the field of property, where the main characteristic is following the constitutional principle of gender equality. The main form of co-ownership predicted in the Codes of the time is that of total co-ownership. In 1981, in the dispositions of Civic code of the family, codes that entered in force in 1982, pushed by the new “moral-humanist” requests to ensure a real solidarity between the consorts, it was imposed to them the unique marital property regime, that of co-ownership.
This article brings to attention one of the most important institutions of the relationship with work, specifically disciplinary responsibility. Through time, the several changes in work legislation, brought the evolution of the concept of this institution, adapting even to the dynamics of the society. Concretely, this article will handle the historical development of disciplinary responsibility and the meaning of the institution of disciplinary responsibility. The disciplinary right, according to the right to work of the Republic of Albania, represents the total of juridical norms that put an internal order at work, enterprise, institutions, norms that are sanctioned and compulsory for the workers, as well as measures that ensure the compliance of these norms. In domocratic societies, the discipline of work moves toward a conscient and voluntary character, different from the dictatorial society, where work discipline represents a discipline dictated, even more through violence and psychological pressure. The aim of the dispositions in the field of discipline of work is regular reinforcement and organization of work, minimization of antidisciplinary demonstrations, of indifference and anarchy at work.
Public Administration and Local Government in Post-Communist Era in Albania and Macedonia (Published)
Public administration reform is one of the main elements of structural reforms in the public sector, in an effort to achieve long-term sustainability of public finance and establish a sound business environment and to increase the quality and efficiency of the public services to the citizens.Public Administration Reform is a very broad concept a very comprehensive and include process changes in areas such as organizational structures, decentralization, personnel management, public finance, results-based management, regulatory reforms, revision of the civil service statute ect. Decentralization is a very important element of the Public Administration Reform as a whole and have a high importance in the entire process. Because of this importance and the big complexity of the issue in this paper I will analyze only the decentralization and local government reform as part of Public Administration Reform. All other pillars that represent Public Administration Reform needs also a special and deep analyze as well. From the mid-1980s onwards, a wave of decentralization reforms swept across the developing world, aimed at transferring responsibilities, resources and authority from higher to lower levels of government. In April 1996, the United Nations General Assembly, at its resumed 50th session, adopted resolution 50/225 on Public Administration and Development. The resolution confirmed the vital importance of strengthening public administration. Decentralization of governance is an important part of the process. Decentralization and local governance are recognized as basic components of democratic governance as providing the enabling environment in which decision-making and service delivery can be brought closer to local people and a very important piller of Public Administration. Decentralized governance is commonly regarded as a process of transferring powers, functions, responsibilities, and resources from central to local government and other entities on local level. From the organizational point of view, it is a process of restructuring of authority, so that there is a system of co-responsibility between institutions of governance at the central, regional and local levels, thus increasing the overall quality and effectiveness of the system of governance, while increasing the authority and capacities of sub-national levels. Decentralized governance provides the legal, administrative and fiscal frameworks for the empowerment of people and their institutions at sub-national levels, from regional to local.The Millennium Declaration, upon which the Millennium Goals are based, recognizes democratic governance, of which public administration is a key component, as central to the achievement of these goals.Each country followed its own trajectory related to historic legacies, geographic features, political factors, and prevailing socio-economic conditions and culture. This paper presents the characteristics of Public Administration and Local Government Reforms in Albania and North Macedonia (all countries of Western Balkan) in Post-Communist Era. In Western Balkan, part of the former Soviet Union, decentralization has been part of the political and economic transformation process, after 1989/1990 from a socialist system to a market economy and had to cope with three fundamental transformations; from a centrally planned state economy to a private market economy; from authoritarian centralized rule to a pluralist democracy; and from party and state-dominated societal organization to a relatively autonomous civil society. Additionally this countries face two development challenges: first, emerged from a decade of conflict and crisis, which influenced the economic, social and political life and structures and second, delayed transition from their socialist systems presents specific significant needs regarding reforms in their economies and public administration. The methodology used is the descriptive one as well as, analyze and comparative, based on secondary empirical data. The conclusion of this paper is that during the last years it is evident a visible progress regarding local government decentralization reform in counties analyzed. This progress has also positively affected their membership status towards EU. But the progress made so far has been slow and is still far from real decentralization parameters. Burdened with ethnic and nationalist conflicts the decentralization reforms are characterized by fragmented structures with unclear division of levels and powers, and non-existent accountability mechanisms.
Albanian Mobile Companies 4G Service Strategies Application (Published)
Albanian mobile market is made of three big players. In this paper the strategies and application for the 4G services of all the operators is discussed and compared. Main point which is tested and discussed in this paper is the quality of service offered by all operators according to their respective clients relative to the application of the strategies pertaining to mobile internet services, and in particular 4G and 4G+ services. The data is organized and gathered according to the SERVQUAL model and his paper is only one piece of a bigger study made in Albanian Telecommunications’ Market. Primary data is analyzed using SPSS. The findings are true and representative of the Albanian market, according to the validity test and the findings.
The historical changes in our country as those of world historical periods of time have influenced considerably in the media evolution. The masmedia service as a service offered by third parties, with no participation from state, has been concessed to the private sector upon a rigid rule of the respect for the principles in a democratic society. The service of masmedia has some given features such as: (i) It is offered in respect of the public interest (ii) It is offered from the private profitable sector (with the exception of the state/public institutions) (iii)It should function as a watchdog of the other 3 state pillars executive, legislative and judicial. (iv) is should have an informative, educational, entertainment, investigative, cultural, scientific according to the characteristics of the community in a countr (v) It should be independent from any intervention. Media is established in the form of a commercial company, such form been given in accordance with the will of the founders, (members, shareholders, societies) as well as in accordance with the legal requirements. Most of the countries legislation require for a company that offers media service to be registered in the form of a shareholder company (joint stock).
The purpose of this paper is to present the current situation in Albania, regarding women’s representation in public administration, in front of European integration challenge. Women’s representation in public administration is analyzed in this paper, with special focus at senior management position as well as in decision-making bodies, compared with the standards of gender quota in Albania and European Union countries. This analysis is based on secondary data; reports or other studies which are processed and analyzed through the statistical comparison. The methodology used is the descriptive and comparative one. There are different findings regarding the different levels of public administration. Women’s representation at low and middle level of public administration, marks significant achievements, exceeded national and European gender quota standards, while at senior management level and decision making bodies it is still in critical level.
Racial Discrimination in Albania and the Role of the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination (CPD) Analysis of Cases of Racial Discrimination Time Period 2010-2014 (Published)
A large number of studies link the dynamics and trends of racial discrimination with the shield that the legal framework or political activity of the judicial institutions at the national, regional, or global level provide. The effect expected from the improvement of laws that determine the cases and precede the limiting of cases of racial discrimination and with the undertaking of concrete actions to protect individuals and groups exposed and vulnerable to racial discrimination, is the reduction of the level, types, shapes, and cases of racial discrimination. Despite this expectation, in Albania, although the legal framework and the concrete actions since a decade ago have marked improvement in the attitude, treatment and protection of discriminated individuals or groups because of their race, data from the institution of the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination show a growing number of cases of racial discrimination during the period 2010-2014. What can explain this paradox? This paper examines racial discrimination in Albania in the light of the relationship between three internal factors: the legislative, the executive, and the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination. Based on the data analysis, this paper argues that the increase in cases of racial discrimination in Albania, more than the result of the weak impact of the legislature and executive, is a result of the increasing role of the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination (CPD) and it is the expression of two trends, one in the short-term plan, and the other in the long-term plan. In the short term one, growth in the number of cases of racial discrimination is explained with the growth and strengthening of the role of such internal factors. In the long run, the decline in the number of cases of racial discrimination is explained with the impact that internal factors such as CPD exercise on the activity of political and legal factors as the legislature and the executive.