The historical changes in our country as those of world historical periods of time have influenced considerably in the media evolution. The masmedia service as a service offered by third parties, with no participation from state, has been concessed to the private sector upon a rigid rule of the respect for the principles in a democratic society. The service of masmedia has some given features such as: (i) It is offered in respect of the public interest (ii) It is offered from the private profitable sector (with the exception of the state/public institutions) (iii)It should function as a watchdog of the other 3 state pillars executive, legislative and judicial. (iv) is should have an informative, educational, entertainment, investigative, cultural, scientific according to the characteristics of the community in a countr (v) It should be independent from any intervention. Media is established in the form of a commercial company, such form been given in accordance with the will of the founders, (members, shareholders, societies) as well as in accordance with the legal requirements. Most of the countries legislation require for a company that offers media service to be registered in the form of a shareholder company (joint stock).
The purpose of this paper is to present the current situation in Albania, regarding women’s representation in public administration, in front of European integration challenge. Women’s representation in public administration is analyzed in this paper, with special focus at senior management position as well as in decision-making bodies, compared with the standards of gender quota in Albania and European Union countries. This analysis is based on secondary data; reports or other studies which are processed and analyzed through the statistical comparison. The methodology used is the descriptive and comparative one. There are different findings regarding the different levels of public administration. Women’s representation at low and middle level of public administration, marks significant achievements, exceeded national and European gender quota standards, while at senior management level and decision making bodies it is still in critical level.
Racial Discrimination in Albania and the Role of the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination (CPD) Analysis of Cases of Racial Discrimination Time Period 2010-2014 (Published)
A large number of studies link the dynamics and trends of racial discrimination with the shield that the legal framework or political activity of the judicial institutions at the national, regional, or global level provide. The effect expected from the improvement of laws that determine the cases and precede the limiting of cases of racial discrimination and with the undertaking of concrete actions to protect individuals and groups exposed and vulnerable to racial discrimination, is the reduction of the level, types, shapes, and cases of racial discrimination. Despite this expectation, in Albania, although the legal framework and the concrete actions since a decade ago have marked improvement in the attitude, treatment and protection of discriminated individuals or groups because of their race, data from the institution of the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination show a growing number of cases of racial discrimination during the period 2010-2014. What can explain this paradox? This paper examines racial discrimination in Albania in the light of the relationship between three internal factors: the legislative, the executive, and the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination. Based on the data analysis, this paper argues that the increase in cases of racial discrimination in Albania, more than the result of the weak impact of the legislature and executive, is a result of the increasing role of the Commissioner of Protection against Discrimination (CPD) and it is the expression of two trends, one in the short-term plan, and the other in the long-term plan. In the short term one, growth in the number of cases of racial discrimination is explained with the growth and strengthening of the role of such internal factors. In the long run, the decline in the number of cases of racial discrimination is explained with the impact that internal factors such as CPD exercise on the activity of political and legal factors as the legislature and the executive.