Community Perception on Air Pollution and Public Health: A Case of Ewekoro And Remo-North Communities in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)
Air pollution has become an issue of concern in Nigeria with its consequent effects on human health. Hence, this study is an empirical investigation on community perception on the effect of air pollution on public health in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was conducted in Ewekoro and Remo-North local government areas in Ogun State. The focus study area was Ewekoro as a result of the activities of LAFARGE Cement factory in the community. Primary data were used for the study. A total of 200 structured questionnaires were distributed to respondents through systematic random sampling techniques to elicit information on air pollution and health. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis. Results from the study show that the people are fully aware of air pollution, and there is prevalence of air pollution in Ewekoro which is largely caused by the activities of LAFARGE Cement. The findings show that air pollution has a significant negative effect on public health. Also, health risk associated with air pollution has a significant negative relationship with public health.
Driving restrictions have been employed in Mexico trying to reduce the air pollution; but results have not been as expected. On November 1989, driving restrictions were applied for the first time in a mandatory fashion, removing 20% of the vehicles of the traffic from Monday to Friday, adding Saturdays in July 2008 and modified in 2014 and 2016. Nevertheless, reduction in the air pollution measured was not observed, neither in 1989, 2008, 2014 or 2016. In 1992 the reduction of sulphur in gasoline content (to 300-500 ppm) reduced the pollution, but in 2009 when the content of sulphur was reduced to 30 ppm the air not show the expected pollution reduction. Similar restrictions have been applied in 11 more cities around the world.
Does the Legislative Mechanism is Effective in Controlling Air Pollution from China: A Thorough Study (Published)
Air pollution problems in China are related to imperfect legislation and potential integration problems among legislation, plans, and policy-making. The purpose of this study is to make the overall system for prevention and control of air pollution in China understood by a broader audience by providing an overview of air pollution legislation. We present a variety of pieces of legislation at national, local, and international levels, including the Constitution, national laws, national administrative regulations and departmental rules, and local regulations and rules that were selected because of their direct and close relation to the prevention and control of air pollution. We describe history of legislation since 1956 till 2018, and the 12th Five-Year plan on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in Key Regions, and a series of policies on energy conservation, emission reduction, and energy use. Then comment on challenges of defects within the legislation framework and integration problems among legislation, plans, and policies. Finally, we put forward some improvement measures to address the challenges.
Impact of Vehicular Emission on Air Pollution in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was carried out to assess the impact of vehicular emission on air pollution at some locations in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria, with a view to determining the contribution of motor vehicle emissions to air pollution. The sites were: Iyana Iba Bus-stop, LASU Main Gate, Okokomaiko Bus stop, LASU Second Gate and LASU Main Campus. Some of the air pollutants measured include carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and suspended particulate matter (SPM). MSA 5x Multi Gas Detector was used to measure the concentration of air pollutants of CO and H2S while Kanomax Single Gas Detector was used to measure NO2 and SO2 and TSI Aero Trak Handheld Particle Counter Model 9303 was used to determine SPM. Vehicular traffic was observed during the peak traffic periods; 8:00 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m. each day for eight days. The number of traffic at each site per hour was counted using an electronic counting machine. The results indicated that the concentration of CO at Okokomaiko Bus-stop was the highest with an average of 54.88±7.94 ppm (n=8). At this site, the concentration fell between 41.00 and 65.00 ppm between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. while the average concentration between 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. was 49.63±10.50. The reason for high concentration of CO at Okokomaiko was due to high vehicular traffic. CO concentration is influenced greatly by traffic flow, in which case the concentration for free – flowing traffic was less compared to an impeded flow due to traffic jam as experienced in most of the locations. The result of the study also showed that hydrogen sulphide profile within the metropolis and control stations was not detected within the equipment’s detection limit. The assessment of the impact of vehicular emissions on the air quality at the study locations showed that traffic density can increase the concentration of air pollutants (NO2 SO2, CO and SPM) emanating from vehicular emissions because pollutants concentrations showed high correlation with traffic density except for H2S. All the pollutants were either within or above the WHO standards for ambient air quality. The study also revealed that measured gaseous pollutants in the air directly or indirectly threaten the environment and life of inhabitants of the locations and that motor vehicles emission and other related activities carried out along these roads remain the main sources of these pollutants.
Effect of Atmospheric Contamination in the Application of Pigments in the Food Industry of Mexicali (Published)
Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Atmospheric Pollutant Concentrations at Bus Terminals along Major Traffic Corridors in Port Harcourt Urban Areas (Published)
This study empirically analyzed atmospheric pollutants concentration especially its relationship to meteorological parameters in the vicinity of bus terminals in the city of Port Harcourt. Data on both atmospheric pollutants ((PM1, PM2.5, PM7, TSP, SO2, NO2, CO, VOC and CO) with their meteorological variables were collected with the aid of Aeroqual 300 series multi-Gas Meter and Extech weather station Gavin UID respectively; in Mile 1, Mile 3, Garrison, Rumuola and Lagos park bus terminals which were selected based on their high level of socio-economic activities and high frequency of buses alighting. Data were analysed using the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Step-Wise Multiple Regression and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings indicates that that Relative humidity (RH) had a direct relationship but low correlation with PM1 PM7, TSP and CO of correlation values (r) of 0.343, 0.229, 0.271 and 0.146 respectively but inversely correlated with SO2 (r = -0.476). However, RH had a direct significant relationship with PM2.5, SO2, and VOC (r = 0.548, 0.629 and 0.595 respectively at p = 0.05). Temperature had a significant but inverse relationship with PM2.5, SO2, and VOC (r = -0.524, -0.641 and -0.6 12 at p = 0.05) and a direct significant relationship with NO2 (r = 0.712) and CO2 (r = 0.553. Wind speed showed a weak relationship with PM1 and CO2 (r = 0.010 and 0.205 ) but inversely and significantly correlated to PM7, PM10, TSP, CO, PM2.5, SO2 and VOC (r = -0.398, -0.398, -0.436, -432, -0.575, -0.864 and respectively) which means that as wind speed reduces the concentration of these pollutants increases at the bus terminals. Result showed that there were elevated spatial and temporal concentrations of these pollutants because of calm atmospheric condition prevailing at the bus terminal. Enforcement of stricter laws and regulations to control emissions of these obnoxious air pollutants because of their health implications for commuters is strongly recommended.
Investigation of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Wood-Based Burnt Brick Sites in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)
Burning of wood globally produces more particulate matter (PM) than fossil fuels and this could pollute the environment and result in serious human ill-health The study assessed particulate matter concentrations in eight purposively selected Local Government Areas (LGAs] of Benue State. Two brick sites were selected in each of the eight sampled LGAs. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were monitored for two years (2012 and 2013), using CROWCON Gasman Digital Particulate Meters. The study revealed that concentrations of particulate matter were significantly much higher during the dry season compared to wet season concentrations. The increased dry season concentrations of particulate matter coincided with the season of burnt brick production in the dry season. The study recommends the development, enforcement and monitoring of air quality guidelines on PM especially for industries at levels to reduce health risks to a minimum.
On The Relationship between Atmospheric Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters along Major Traffic Corridors in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria (Published)
This study analyzes the relationship between atmospheric pollutants concentration and meteorological parameters at bus terminals in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Data on both atmospheric pollutants with their meteorological variables were collected with the aid of multi-Gas Monitor and Extech weather station respectively at five major bus terminals. Data were analysed using the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Step-Wise Multiple Regression and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings indicate that that Relative humidity (RH) had low correlation with PM1 (0.343) and CO (0.146) but inversely correlated with SO2 (r = -0.476). However, RH had a positive significant relationship with PM2.5, SO2, and VOC (r = 0.548, 0.629 and 0.595 respectively at p = 0.05). Temperature had a significant but inverse relationship with PM2.5, SO2, and VOC (r = -0.524, -0.641 and -0.6 12 at p = 0.05) and a direct significant relationship with NO2 (r = 0.712) and CO2 (r = 0.553. Wind speed showed a weak relationship with PM1 and CO2 (r = 0.010 and 0.205) but inversely and significantly correlated to PM7, PM10, TSP, CO, PM2.5, SO2 and VOC (r = -0.398, -0.398, -0.436, -432, -0.575, -0.864 respectively). Concentrations of pollutants were elevated because of calm atmospheric conditions prevailing at the bus terminals.
Diurnal and Seasonal variations in troposphere ozone level at sub-tropical station, Jabalpur, India, and relationship with meteorological Condition (Published)
Troposphere ozone measurements at Central India sub tropical site Jabalpur (located at 23°10′N 79°57′E / 23.17°N 79.95°E) India has been studied for the period from January 2015 to December 2015.Tropospheric ozone is both a greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System (AAQMS) is sensor based ozone monitor which in used for measurement. Temperature shows a good positive correlation whereas relative humidity shows a negative correlation with ozone. Results of this study have revealed that the annual mean of daily average surface ozone concentration varies from 11 ppb to 38 ppb. The highest average seasonal concentration was observed in summer and lowest in winter season.
Over the years the world has been detecting and monitoring the increase in surface temperature. The vast majority of scientists have named it the phenomenon of global warming resulting in climate change. The Metropolitan Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, in recent years, accompanied the increase in air pollution by the transport sector and concluded that the sector contributes to these climatic phenomena in local and global levels. Many strategies have been developed to minimize the impacts of this and other sources of emissions to the environment. New research and technological advances must be deployed immediately to try to mitigate the adverse effects of climate on Earth and prevent natural disasters, such as happens quite often nowadays. This study draws attention to another type of pollution, extremely dependent on air pollution: impacts of the use and occupation. Nevertheless, it highlights the importance of monitoring the temperature of the earth’s crust, to confirm that surface temperatures and below increased proportionately. The porous pavements, even in small patches, are important to contribute to the balance of the ecosystem but the quality of air we breathe is both harmful to health on the ground that receives it. So educate the public about the harmful effects of air pollution unimaginable is the bottleneck for the replacement of traditional waterproof decks for porous pavements and as a consequence, facilitate the exchange liquid and gas, so necessary in the process of cleaning up and slowing global warming.
Amman city, the capital of Jordan has suffered from the impacts of highway mode of transportation. Traffic network management system aim to reduce traffic congestion, delay, fuel consumption, and air and noise pollution. Also, to improve the level of service (LOS) of the urban streets and intersections. This research paper is an engineering project management study; it is about improving traffic network management system in Al Shmesani district in Amman. It was conducted on a network of two main arterials with eight signalized intersections. They are Al Kindi street continued with Prince Shaker Bin Zaid street and Al Sharif Naser Bin Jamel street. The traffic data was collected from the government records at several departments in Amman Municipality and Directorate of Public Security. Highway Capacity Software HCS2000 and updated Synchro-8 programs software were used to evaluate the traffic conditions at each intersection for years 2012 and 2022. The evaluation shows that the intersections are operating at LOS F with high delay time and high saturation flow. Two alternatives were used to improve the traffic conditions. The first one is to change the existing timing plan of the traffic signal to optimize timing plan, this showed little improvement in traffic condition. The second alternatives are to modify the geometric conditions with changing and optimizing the timing plan of the signalized intersections. It showed good improving in the traffic conditions and saving in delay time and fuel consumption at the existing and the future conditions. The Level of Service LOS’s of the intersections were improved from LOS F to LOS C, D and E. It showed also the average overall saving in vehicle delay is about 87.75% and the saturation flow is improved at all intersections to less than one. The fuel consumption is also reduced with about 93%.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Delay, Fuel Consumption, Highway Mode of Transportation, Level of Service (LOS), Noise Pollution, Saturation Flow., Signalized Intersections, Traffic Congestion, Traffic Network Management System, Urban Streets