The movement of capital across national boundaries has remained an interesting area in development narratives considering its role in the development process. This paper provides deeper insights into the empirical relationship between capital inflows and per capita GDP growth in Nigeria between 1980 and 2018. The heterogeneous nature of foreign capital was taken into consideration following its decomposition into its key components of debt, aid and migrants’ remittances. Time series for each of the variables were collected from secondary sources including NBS, World Bank World WDI, World Bank, International Debt Statistics and IMF International Financial Statistics. Combinations of ADF unit root and bounds cointegration tests in addition ARDL and Granger causality tests form basis for the analysis. It was found from the unit root test results that the variables are mixed integrated. Again, the bounds test show evidence of long run relationship amongst the variables. The ARDL estimates reveal that migrants’ remittances have the significant positive effect on per capita GDP in the long run. With 1 percent increase in remittances, per capita GDP will, on the average, increase by about 2.2595 percent. On the other hand, multilateral debt negatively affects per capita GDP in both short and long run. It was found from the results that bidirectional causality exists between migrants’ remittances and per capita GDP while unidirectional causality flows from technical cooperation grants to GDP per capita. Given the findings, it is recommended that policy makers should initiate policies and provide incentives helpful for mobilizing international resources and allow for a paradigm shift that will ensure the allocation of the resources to key sectors with high potentials for growth of per capita GDP.
Liminality and Regeneration in Wahome Mutahi’s the House of Doom, Francis Imbuga’s Miracle of Remera and Moraa Gitaa’s the Crucible for Silver and Furnace for Gold (Published)
This paper is a critical interrogation of three Kenyan HIV/AIDS novels: Wahome Mutahi’s The House of Doom (2004), Francis Imbuga’s Miracle of Remera (2004) and Moraa Gitaa’s The Crucible for Silver and Furnace for Gold (2008). It examines how the enactments of illness by the diseased characters in the three texts relate to their quest for meaning. The paper has drawn primarily on the existentialist notions advanced by Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, the Foucauldian postulations on the politics of and the care of the self and de Certeau’s thoughts on liminality. These paradigms have the self as a shared feature and are useful in focusing the analysis to the individuality of the diseased subjects and their relationship with themselves and the complex social world around them. The paper emanates from the need to foster understanding of the ontological issues surrounding AIDS experience.
Improving Welfare: Foreign Aid versus Government Social Spending, Evidence from African Countries Using a Quantile Regression (Published)
The study uses a quantile regression to investigate the role of government actions to enhance welfare. Instead of using the Human Development index as a broad indicator of welfare, the analysis focuses on life expectancy at birth, which is more specific and pertinent for the case of less advanced economies. In addition to life expectancy, infant mortality rate is used as additional indicator. To avoid a bias in the estimates generated by a double count of the variable aid, the residual from the regression of social spending on aid is used, instead of the variable social spending itself, as some portions of government social spending are financed by aid. Results reveal that aid does not directly affect welfare. On the opposite, government social spending contributes to increase life expectancy, reduces infant mortality, and therefore plays an important role in the improvement of welfare. In addition, the impact of social spending on welfare appears stronger in the countries with poor welfare indicators, than the countries with relatively better welfare indicators.