Global Agricultural Aggregate Supports & Measures during WTO Regime: Agriculture Development & Promotion of Foreign Trade (Published)
Globally, agriculture has been protected from ancient time. WTO Members seek to continually improve market access through the regular WTO work programs and through negotiations. This study investigates the trends and growth rates of tariff and non-tariff measures, aggregate measures of agriculture adopted by WTO member countries in particular and continents in general. It also suggests policies for the development and protection of agriculture in the world. The continents wise viz., Africa, Asia, Europe, Least Developed Countries, Middle East, North America, South and Central America which covers the total 164 WTO member countries were selected for the study. The study found that during the period 2000 to 2016, Russia, India, China and New Zealand are given more domestic support to agricultural sector than compared to other WTO member countries. Among the developed and under developed countries, highest outlay was made by China excluding OECD members in both producer supports and general service supports. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Anti-dumping (ADP) were emerged as most prominent non-tariff measures to protect agriculture in the world. The highest non-tariff measures were imposed by Asia followed by Europe and North America. The USA imposes the highest number of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS), Technical Barriers to Trade [TBT] and Countervailing (CV) measures. The India, Indonesia, Poland, Australia, Norway and Venezuela are imposed highest numbers of non-tariff measure like Anti-dumping [ADP], Safeguards (SG), Special Safeguards [SSG], Quantitative Restrictions, Tariff-rate quotas [TRQ] and Export Subsidies [XS] respectively. The bound duties and MFN applied duties for imports of major commodities in India were found to be more or less high than Japan, USA and European Union. It gives a price advantage to locally-produced major agriculture goods over similar goods which are imported. The India has imposed highest tariffs and import duties than Japan, USA and European Union in both agriculture and non-agriculture sector. Finally, the study concludes that each country tried to protect its domestic market by erecting high barriers in or another way in trade in agricultural products. The study is suggesting that WTO has to make necessary correction agreement and club all measures into one and deal.
An Analysis on the Effective Factors on Success Rural Production Cooperatives in Iran, The Case Study – Ardabil Province (Published)
This paper aims to investigate the factors affecting success of rural production cooperatives in the province of Ardabil. The population of this research contains all active companies in the province of Ardabil that their numbers are 1615 cases, statistic sample is 173, 521 people were selected studied. Examples of the towns to fit the volume of statistical community each of the towns to estimate the whole society. The research tool questionnaire is made by researcher achieved Face validity asked by the panel of experts. Study in the region was same to statistical community with the number of 30 questionnaire and business with data and the use of the special formula Alpha in SPSS software, reliability questionnaire 0/84 research obtained to analyze the data, and on the other hand, the measure of success of rural production cooperatives factor analysis model used and the results of the model shows the most important factors affecting success in rural areas, including four components (strengthening social capital and external environment reablation , cognitive capacities enhance of numbers , improving the management of the and health factors working environment and strengthen economic foundations) that variance and cumulative variance sums planned by these four factors is 71/19.