Sectoral Loans and Bank Performance in Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the effect of Sectoral loans on commercial banks performance in Nigeria using time series spanned data over a period, 1990-2018. Secondary data were sourced from the central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin 2018. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller, co-integration, and the error correction mechanism tests. Specifically, the sectors looked into in this study are Agriculture/forestry, manufacturing, and mining/Quary sector respectively, while interest rate was included as control variable. The result indicates that agriculture, manufacturing, and mining sectors have linear and insignificant effect on bank performance proxied by return on asset; while interest rate has negative effect on bank performance for the period under review. Furthermore, Johansen co-integration test result indicates the existence of four cointegrating long run relationship among variables selected in this study. It is proffered that Government should strengthen institutions that are charged with the responsibility of granting loans and advances to agriculture sector because of its associated benefit not only to the banks but the economy at large. The bank of industry (Boi) and the central bank of Nigeria should as a matter of urgency create enabling business environment for manufacturing companies to access cheap funds so as to enhance business growth and innovations. Interest rate for agriculture, manufacturing and mining sector should be reduced to a single digit so as to encourage these sectors to grow.
Utilization of Mass Media among Farmers in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
The study analyzed the utilization of mass media by farmers in Ikwere local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the available mass media in the study area, ascertained the extent of use of these mass media, identified the perceived roles of mass media, assessed the perceived effectiveness of mass media and identified the factors that affect the use of mass media in the study area. A sample of 180 farmers was obtained using multistage sampling technique. Data were elicited from the farmers using a set of structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage count, mean statistic and bar chart. Results show that the farmers were still in their active ages (M = 40 years) with majority (99.1%) of them receiving formal education. It was further revealed that television, radio and mobile phone were the most available mass media in the area
Assessing the Relationship between Diversification of Non-Oil Export Product and Economic Growth in Nigeria. (Published)
The study investigates the relationship between diversification of non-oil export products and economic growth in Nigeria from 1981 and 2014. The study examines the significant role of non-oil export product on real economic growth which the previous studies might have ignored and the aggregate non-oil exports product data used by them might bias their conclusions. In achieving the objectives of the study, Ordinary Least Square Methods involving Error correction mechanism, co-integration, over-parametization and parsimonious were adopted. Johansen Co integration test reveals that the variables are cointegrated which confirms the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship between the variables. Thus, this suggests that all the variables tend to move together in the long run. The study reveals that the there is significant relationship between diversification of non-oil export and economic growth in Nigeria during the period. This was evident in the study that the policies on non-oil products during the period in Nigerian do not sufficiently encourage non-oil export, thus reduce their contributions to growth. This is because the study reveals that agricultural and manufacturing components of non-oil export has positive and significant relationship with economic growth while solid minerals components has negative and insignificant relationship with economic growth in Nigeria. This study therefore recommend that government should enforce non-oil export policies towards resuscitating the failing non-oil export industry. The study among other things encourages the government to strengthen the legislative and supervisory framework of the non-oil products in Nigeria and diversify the economy to ensure maximum contributions from all faces of the subsectors to economic growth of Nigeria.
The Knowledge Level of Farmers toward Agricultural Extension in Lublin Province – Poland (Published)
This article aims to identify the level of knowledge to farmers in Lublin province toward the agricultural extension in general, and to identify the farmers’ knowledge level in each item of the knowledge level scale, and find a correlation relationship between level of knowledge to farmers and independent variables included in this article. The results showed that the level of knowledge to farmers towards agricultural extension in general is (medium) in Lublin province. The results also showed level of knowledge to farmers high in the following items(agricultural extension helps farmers on how to eliminate the insects and diseases that affect the crops, agricultural extension helps farmers on the proper use of pesticides). The results showed also there is significant correlation between knowledge level of farmers and variables (sources information), while results did not show a significant correlation between knowledge level and independent variables (age, education, size of farm, average yields).