Prevalence of Hypertension Among Post-Menopausal Women in Enugu, Nigeria: Do Age and Marital Status Matter? (Published)
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among post-menopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, and whether or not age and marital status are risk factors. In a cross- sectional survey, a total of 300 post-menopausal women within the age range of 45-85 years who gave their informed consent, were conveniently selected from markets, schools and homes located in Enugu metropolis. An adapted self-structured questionnaire was administered to each participant and data were generated and analyzed. Major findings revealed high prevalence of post-menopausal hypertension, especially above 50 years (67.7%), irrespective of their marital status. Results showed a statistical significant relationship (p<0.05) between post-menopausal hypertension and age, but not with maternal marital status. These findings suggest that age is of critical importance when predicting the onset and progress of post-menopausal hypertension. Elderly women therefore, should be given priority attention during clinical investigations and therapeutic planning for the ailment.
Variances in Learning Styles of Full-Time Undergraduate Students Based on Demographic Variables (Published)
The study, which was based on the VAK Learning Style Model, examined the learning style preferences and variances in the learning style of full-time undergraduate students in the Department of Basic Education, University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Ghana. Using the simple random sampling technique, 621 students were involved in the study. With the use of a questionnaire, quantitative data were obtained and analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study revealed that the students made use of all the three learning styles even though they dominantly preferred and used visual learning style as compared to auditory and kinaesthetic learning styles. At a significance of 0.01, the study found statistically significant differences in the learning style preferences of male and female full-time undergraduate students. There were also no statistically significant differences in the learning style preferences of the students based on age, level of study and residential status. Among the recommendations is that lecturers in the Department should adopt a variety of appropriate instructional practices and strategies that may optimise the diverse learning style preferences of the students.
A Psycholinguistic Study on the Comprehension of Passive Voice by Children Native Speakers of Jordanian Arabic (Published)
This study aims at examining the influence of age and gender factors on the Jordanian children’s comprehension of passive voice. Thirty children who belong to five age group from 3; 0 – 7; 11 years old participated in this study. Each of these groups include six children with equal number of males and females chosen randomly from an elementary school in Jordan. A comprehension test was given to children using six pairs of pictures that illustrate the contrast between the active and passive sentences. The findings indicate the Jordanian children exhibit an awareness of passive construction at an early age; at around three years of age. The gender variable was found statistically insignificant in the comprehension of passive voice.
Diversity is any characteristic that creates people different from one another. It is the similarities and differences between workers in terms of gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or other dimensions. Workplace diversity is the importance of similarities and differences that exist among employees of athletic organizations. It means a workplace consisted of people who belong to various cultural groups or people with different human qualities. Age is a variable that is rarely discussed as the main point of diversity in sports organizations. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the impact of age on the perceptions of diversity management of employees working in east Attica municipal sports organizations. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects working in the sports municipalities in east Attica randomly selected participated in the study. For data collection, we used the scale developed by DeMeuse and Hostager (2001). After results analysis of the questionnaire scores by ANOVA, significant differences were observed in nine of a total of twenty items. It is concluded that employees of older age who work in municipal sports organizations of East Attica had more negative perceptions toward diversity in comparison to other age groups.
The results obtained in the study age dynamics of indicators of sperm production of breeding bulls of black-motley and hill breeds indicate on the Republican Center of livestock breeding JSC “ASIL TҮLІK” Akmola Province, Kazakhstan indicate that the quantity of the received sperm production changes by years of their use. Special differences of age dynamics between breeds it isn’t observed
Relationship Among Study Habits, Gender, Marital Status, Age, Parents’ Level of Education and Academic Performance of Nce Students in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the relationship among study habits, gender, age, and parents’ level of education and academic performance of NCE Students in Kashim Ibrahim College of Education Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Five objectives were raised which include, to determining the relationship between study habits and academic performance of NCE students of Kashim Ibrahim College of education Maiduguri and relationship between gender, age, marial status and academic performance of NCE students. In line with the objectives, five hypotheses were tested. The researchers adopted survey and correlational design for the study.A sample of 142 NCE 2 and 3 students was selected through simple random and stratified sampling techniques. That is, 20 NCE II and NCE III students’ (males 71 and females 71) were involved. The research instrument that was adopted for this study is “Study Habits and Examination Techniques Inventory (SHETI)” Form P, developed by Carew and Hamman-Tukur (1996). Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation. Results indicate that, there is significant relationship between gender and academic performance (r-value = .419, p value = .006 and P<0.05). However, the result revealed no statistically significant relationship between study habits and academic performance. From these findings, it is recommended that Since there was significant relationship between gender and academic performance, equal opportunity should be given to both males and females in schools and Colleges, particularly in terms of placing students into various courses; they should not be discriminated based on their sex. Married students should not be denied admission in all the schools and Colleges, because marital status is never abarrier to students’ academic performance. Though the result indicated that no significant relationship between study habits and academic performance, study habit patterns should be taught to students because it cannot be divorced from study.
Adjustment Strategies of Widows to Widowhood Stress Based on Their Age: The Case of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was aimed at investigating influence of age on adjustment strategies employed by widows in coping with widowhood stress in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 probability level. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population via proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; all the eight adjustment strategies (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotion, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism and social withdrawal) are adopted by widows in ameliorating widowhood stress; there are slight differences among the mean values of the different age groups with regards to all the adjustment strategies of widows to widowhood stress. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made accordingly.
Developmental Stages Of the Production of Passive Voice by Children Native Speakers of Jordanian Arabic (Published)
This study aims at investigating the children’s production of passive voice in Jordanian Arabic. It sheds light on the factors that may influence the children’s production of some passive forms in Jordanian Arabic. The sample of the study consists of thirty Jordanian children who belong to five age groups from 3; 0 – 7;11 years old. Each of these groups includes six children with equal number of males and females chosen randomly from an elementary school in Jordan. A production test was given to the children using six pairs of pictures that illustrate the contrast between the active and passive sentences. The findings indicate the nature of the construction of passive in Jordanian Arabic does not have that complexity which may pose difficulties for the Jordanian children in their production of passive voice. The increase in age is accompanied by improvement in the child’s linguistic abilities necessary for the production of passive voice.
Influence of Age and Educational Level on Adjustment Strategies to Widowhood Stress in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was designed to determine the extent to which age and educational level influence adjustment strategies to widowhood stress among widows in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and two corresponding hypotheses guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 alpha levels. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population through proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; widows in Rivers State differ significantly in their adjustment strategies to widowhood stress on the basis of age, educational attainment. Based on the findings of this work, three relevant recommendations were made one of which is that counsellors could systematically use the adjustment strategies studied in this research to help widows to cope with widowhood stress
Cultural factors are examined to see how they affect the purchase of pork in Nigeria. Data for the study are obtained through structured questionnaire administered by the researcher and some research assistants. A total of 82 questionnaires are administered out of which 70 are duly filled and returned. Tools used for statistical analysis include Statistical Package for Social Sciences. SPSS 17, Microsoft Excel (2015), Multiple Regression Analysis and Relative Important Index (RII). Findings reveal that cultural variables exert significant influences on the purchase and consumption of pork. The study also found that aside from the cultural factors, age and income also affect the quantity of pork purchased and consumed. Based on these findings the study concludes that cultural factors, age and income influence the quantity of pork purchased and consumed. The study then recommends that these factors should not be taken for granted; rather they should be identified and studied since purchase and consumption of pork are based on them.
Demographic Differences in the Knowledge of Breast Cancer among Women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)
Breast cancer is the most common of all cancers and is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, a condition that may be predicated upon by lack of knowledge about fundamental regimen necessary for cancer prevention. The study was therefore designed to determine demographic differences in the knowledge of breast cancer among women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The sample of the study comprised 1,845 women drawn through the multistage sampling procedure. A 40-item questionnaire was used to elicit information on knowledge symptoms, risk factors, prevention methods and treatment options of cancer. Descriptive statistic of percentage was used to answer the research question and inferential statistic of chi-square was used to test the entire hypotheses formulated for the study at an alpha level of 0.05. Knowledge of breast cancer was found to be on the average (48.72%); differed by age with younger women (35-44years 56.43%) reporting higher knowledge of breast cancer than the older ones (45-54 years 46.03%); women with post-secondary education (67.66%) had higher knowledge than those with secondary (60.16%), primary (49.03%) and non-formal education (39.01%); urban women (55.61%) were more knowledgeable than rural women (47.81%). Chi-square analysis indicated that significant association existed between level of education and knowledge of breast cancer. However, no significant association was found between age and location of residence. It was concluded that breast cancer knowledge of women in Ebonyi State is on the average and associated significantly with education, but not with age and location of residence of the women. Consequently, it is recommended that breast cancer education should be used to improve the women’s knowledge of the disease, especially for those with non-formal education, older women and those in the rural areas through interventions by government and non-governmental agencies and through curriculum revision for schools
Socio-Economic Factors Affecting ICT Utilization by Youths in Fish Farming In Kaduna State, Nigeria (Published)
Background ICT brings forth new development surfacing in agriculture. Youths need to improve their ICT abilities for the promotion of agriculture. This study was carried out in Kaduna state Nigeria. Objective the broad objective of the study was to determine the socio – economic factors that affect the utilization of ICT in fish production by youth in Kaduna State. Methods 100 youths were randomly selected and administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression and correlation analysis. Results The results showed that age, education, pond size, quantity of fish produce and training contributed significantly to ability to use ICT in fish production. Some factors were found to be positively related to ICT utilization. Age, education and training made positive contributions at 5% level of probability. Conclusion It was therefore concluded that youth need resources (education and training) in order to utilize ICT in food production. It is recommended youth need empowerment and training to utilize ICT for food production
Assertiveness Training And Cognitive Restructuring Technique On Self-Esteem Of Female Undergraduate Victims Of Relationship Violence In South-West Nigeria (Published)
This study used a pre-test-post-test, control group quasi-experimental design to investigate the effects of assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring technique on self-esteem of female undergraduate victims of relationship violence in south-west Nigeria. The sample for the study comprised of ninety female undergraduates students who have experienced relationship violence. They were screened using the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (SVAWS) and selected through multi-stage sampling technique from three randomly selected Universities (Ibadan, Lagos and Olabisi Onobanjo) in South-west Nigeria. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The two treatment groups were exposed to eight-weeks training in Assertiveness and Cognitive Restructuring Training, while participants in the control group received no training. Two validated instrument: Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (SVAWS) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data was analysed using Analysis of Covariance. There was significant main effect of treatment in the pre-post self-esteem scores of female undergraduate victims of relationship violence in the experimental and control groups (F(2,87) = 43.884, P < .05). Also, there was significant difference in the main effect of age in the pre-post self-esteem scores of female undergraduate victims of relationship violence between young and older participants (F (2,87) = 16.808, P < .05). However, that there was no significant interaction effect of age in the pre-post self-esteem scores of female undergraduate victims of relationship violence in the experimental and control groups (F(3,86) = 0.188, P < .05). Therefore, psychological intervention programmes should be put in place in universities through their counselling centres to help undergraduates rediscover their potentials and develop competence to relate intelligently with others.
EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE AND RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES ON DRUG ABUSE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IBADAN (Published)
This study investigated the effects of cognitive behaviour therapy and rational emotive behaviour therapy on drug abuse of senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted a pretest-posttest, control group Quasi-experimental design. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 participants from three randomly selected secondary schools in Ibadan. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The two treatment groups were exposed to eight-week training in cognitive behaviour and rational emotive behaviour therapies, while participants in the control group received no training. One validated instrument: School Drug Abuse Rating Scale (DARS) as used and four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance and MCA. The results of the study revealed that there was significant main effect of treatment on the ability of student’s to overcome their drug abuse challenges (F (3,116) = 6.613, p < .05).Also, the findings indicated that Cognitive Behaviour and Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapies were effective in effecting a behavioural change in students with challenges of drug abuse. Likewise, the result further revealed that there was no significant difference in the main effect of age between (younger and older); gender (male and female) on the drug abuse act of student participants. Also, the three way interaction effect of treatment with age and gender was not significant. Therefore, school authorities should adopt the two interventions as to effectively manage the challenging issue of drug abuse among secondary school students’ in school
MODERATING ROLE OF AGE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAREER READINESS AND CAREER INDECISION. (Published)
The purpose of this study was to determine the moderating role of age in the association between career readiness and career indecision. A sample of 369 secondary school students was surveyed on career indecision and career readiness. Using multiple regression analysis, the predictor variables were able to account for 25.7 % of variance in career indecision. Career indecision was significantly negatively correlated to career readiness. Increase in career readiness was significantly predictive of decrease in career indecision. The interaction term between career readiness and age significantly predicted career indecision. Because the interaction term was significant this implies that age was a significant moderator in the relationship between career readiness and career indecision. The relationship between career maturity and career indecision was found to be stronger at younger ages
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOBILE PHONE USAGE AND GRATIFICATION AMONG ARTISANS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
The aim of this study was to find out the predictive value of socioeconomic characteristics of artisans, such as, age, education and work experience in mobile phone usage and gratification with a view to providing an empirical guide for stakeholders in the industry. The descriptive design in form of an ex post-facto approach was used. A total of 200 participants were purposively selected from various groups of automobile artisans including mechanics, rewire, battery chargers, panel beaters and painters operating in Ogun state. Findings revealed significant composite contribution of the three variables to the prediction of mobile phone usage and gratification among artisans. However, only age independently predicted mobile phone usage and gratification among artisans while education and work experience did not. Therefore, it was recommended that artisans of varying ages should be encouraged to use mobile phones in order to boost their trades in the state.
AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE ONINMATE PERCEPTION OF PRISON REFORMS: A CASE OF ELDORET GK PRISON IN RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE OF KENYA (Published)
In the 18th century, prisons were, in the words of Henry Fielding, “sewers of idleness”. Prisons were farmed out to private persons whose object was simply to make a profit. Women were thrown in the same common ward as men; first offenders with hardened recidivists; inoffensive civil debtors with muggers… ten year old boys with homosexual rapists (Hughes,1987). The need for a gender-sensitive approach to female prisoners has been underlined by penal reform experts in countries worldwide. For example, a national survey conducted in the United States during 1993 and 1994 pointed to the need of a different style ofmanagement for women prisoners (Morash et al., 2006). To this end, it is worth establishing whether in one way or another, aspects of inmates’ age and gender have any influence on how they perceive prison reforms.This study is therefore set to investigate theinfluence of inmates’ age and gender on their perception of prison reforms. The study was undertaken in Eldoret GK Prison in Uasin Gishu County of Kenya. Survey and causal comparative designs were adopted in this study as quantitative research methods. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 310 participants for the study. Data was collected by use of biographical form and questionnaires and analyzed by both descriptive and inferential statistics by use of SPSS. The study found that the female inmates had a more positive perception of prison reforms than the male inmates. However, the age of inmates had no significant relationship with their perception of prison reforms. Finally, the study recommends that urgent measures be taken to help reduce the reported congestion in the male prisons. This will help improve the overall perception of the male inmates on the prison reforms
GENDER, AGE DIFFERENTIALS: IMPLICATIONS IN PREMARITAL SEX AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS (Published)
This paper examined how gender and age differences influence the premarital sexual behaviour of young people (Adolescents and young Adults). A sample of 100 students, (50 males and 50 females) between the ages of 18-35 years was randomly drawn from the undergraduate student populations and a 28-question standerdised questionnaire to assess some aspects of their sexual behaviour was administered. Statistical analyses of data involved one-way Anova and Descriptive statistics which indicated that there were no differences gender-wise F(1,98)=0.36,P>0.05, age-wise F(1,98)=0.461, P>0.05 and religion-wise F(2/96)=1.8, P>0.05 in premarital sex, in terms of indulgence, susceptibility to experiment and frequency of indulgence. There is need for more detailed research with emphasis on such potential influences like marital status, ethnicity and social status of respondent(s) on premarital sex