Tag Archives: Africa

EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND RESPONSES IN THE CONDUIT TO SUSTAINABILITY ACCOUNTING IN AN AFRICAN COUNTRY (Published)

The purpose of this study is to explore environmental impacts and responses in Uganda, an African country where a sustainability accounting approach is of growing significance and relevance. This is still a relatively new field of practice as well as a new academic endeavor, and thus entails originality. Oil and petroleum and energy-sector activities are generally key ingredients in the fast-growing economy, and are in the categories of being high risk with immensely negative social and environmental impacts. Petroleum companies dominate the top taxpayers in the country, which justifies a focus on the oil industry sector. This study is conceived as an improvement on one of the objectives of a wider study by the first author that investigated the relations among legitimacy, marketing and environmental accounting practices, focusing on oil companies in Uganda. Data collection methods included analysis of the way in which environmental accounting is developed and assessment of the credibility of inputs at various levels. Other data collection methods included a review of companies’ environmental reports/statements and ethnographic interviews at oil companies, formal and informal garages and filling stations. A questionnaire was also administered to 155 respondents drawn from 57 oil supply chains. Our major findings are that the main negative impacts on the environment in all oil marketing chains were soil and water pollution. There is an emphasis on profit margins at the expense of environmental factors in an equatorial country that induces climate change. The study results add to the body of knowledge on sustainability accounting to mitigate the environmental problems in place and minimize further occurrences. We suggest that future accountants need to understand and have knowledge of sustainability issues and how they can be captured in reports for a sustainable future.

Keywords: Africa, Environment, Uganda, impacts and resources, oil companies, sustainability accounting

Suicide in Yoruba Ontology (Published)

Suicide is generally regarded as all cases of death resulting from action taken by the victim themselves, and with the intention and prospect of killing oneself. The cause is frequently attributed to psychological disorders, substance abuse, shame, guilty, rejection, loss, and loneliness, death of a loved one, emotional trauma, serious physical illness, and unemployment or money problems. In this paper, the researcher studies the problem of suicide from Yoruba perspective. Yoruba is a language and the name of an ethnic group or tribe in Nigeria. The paper interrogates Yoruba concept of death, the quality of death through suicide and suicide among the Yoruba. For the Yoruba, when it comes to the issue of autonomy and competence as regards deciding on suicide, they would metaphorically claim that ‘bose wuni lase imole eni’ (one determines one’s faith the way one deems fit) drawing from the cultural construct of the Yoruba worldview that celebrate suicide in avoidance of shame- iku ya j’esin- a principle of dignity in dying. This understanding of suicide from an Yoruba perspective is believed will help enhance the value of human life and thus save the world from being plunged into a silent crisis of the value of life.

Keywords: Africa, Autonomy, Honor, Ontology, Suicide, Victim, Yoruba, ignominy

IMPERIALISM AND ECONOMIC UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: A STUDY OF SUDAN (Published)

This work attempts to examine the connection between imperialism and the socio-economic challenges that have hindered development in post-independence Sudan. With data derived extensively from secondary source materials on the subject, the paper reveals that the Sudanese have been victims of the struggles among contending imperialist powers in the country, which has over the years, resulted in political destabilisation and economic stagnation in the country. The contention of this paper is that while Anglo-Egyptian imperialism, laid the foundation for the present political and economic turmoil experienced in the country, the trend has been sustained in recent times, by China-US rivalry for the control of Sudan’s oil industry. The paper further reveals that the recent media propaganda and economic sanctions of the US against the Sudanese government in Khartoum, is not a humanitarian gesture. Rather it is part of US Strategy to force the regime of Omar Al-Bashir to sever economic and diplomatic ties with China, who is a major threat to US economic interest in the country. The paper concludes by stating that unless constitutionalism, the rule of law and true nationalism is promoted in the region, the Sudanese (both North and South) would remain pliant and amenable to the interest and subtle machination of contemporary imperialist powers

Keywords: Africa, Imperialism, Sudan, Underdevelopment

INVESTIGATING AND PROSECUTING INTERNATIONAL CRIMES DOMESTICALLY: RETHINKING INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW (Published)

International crimes are breaches of international rules entailing the personal criminal liability of the individuals concerned (as opposed to the responsibility of the state of which the individual may act as organs). This article examines the concept of international crimes, universal jurisdiction and the accountability machineries. This article canvasses for building of local capacity for domestic prosecution of international crimes. The authors submit that internalization of justice should be the last resort

Keywords: Africa, Crimes, Genocide, Investigating, Jurisdiction, Prosecuting

Suicide in Yoruba Ontology (Review Completed - Accepted)

Suicide is generally regarded as all cases of death resulting from action taken by the victim themselves, and with the intention and prospect of killing oneself. The cause is frequently attributed to psychological disorders, substance abuse, shame, guilty, rejection, loss, loneliness, death of a loved one, emotional trauma, serious physical illness, and unemployment or money problems. In this paper, the researcher studies the problem of suicide from Yoruba perspective. Yoruba is a language and the name of an ethnic group or tribe in Nigeria. The paper interrogates Yoruba concept of death, the quality of death through suicide and suicide among the Yoruba. For the Yoruba, when it comes to the issue of autonomy and competence as regards deciding on suicide, they would metaphorically claim that ‘bose wuni lase imole eni’ (one determines one’s faith the way one deems fit) drawing from the cultural construct of the Yoruba worldview that celebrate suicide in avoidance of shame- iku ya j’esin- a principle of dignity in dying. This understanding of suicide from an Yoruba perspective is believed will help enhance the value of human life and thus save the world from being plunged into a silent crisis of the value of life

Keywords: Africa, Autonomy, Honor, Ontology, Suicide, Victim, Yoruba, ignominy

Is Privatization Related With Macroeconomic Management? Evidence From Some Selected African Countries (Review Completed - Accepted)

Has macroeconomic management succeeded in making privatization promote growth in Africa? What are the probable strategies that should accompany the privatization reform process to promote growth in Africa? To what extent has the privatization process succeeded in attracting foreign direct investment to Africa? The study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic management and privatization. Many African countries have embarked on one form of privatization reform or the other since 1980, as one of the stringent conditions for accessing capital from the IMF and the World Bank. Secondly, globalization and the gradual integration of the African economy into the global economy also means that Africa has to strategically develop its domestic market to cushion itself from fluctuations and probable contagion associated with global economic crisis that are always inevitable (Stiglitz, 2000 and Ojeaga P., 2012). The methods of estimation used are the OLS, linear mixed effects (LME), 2SLS and the GMM method of estimation. It was found that macroeconomic management has the capacity to affect the success of the privatization reform process. It was also found that privatization was not promoting growth in Africa; privatization could promote growth if long run growth strategies are implemented together with the privatization reform process. Privatization was also found not to have the capacity to attract foreign investment to many African countries.

Keywords: Africa, Game theory, Macroeconomic Management and Privatization, Political Economy

Engineering Education as a Tool for Human Welfare Improvement in Africa: A Multidimensional Model Analysis (Published)

One of the arguments to answer the Malthusian thesis stood on the hope the world had in Engineers. It is however getting more difficult to ascertain the possibility of satisfying the needs of a growing world population while preserving the carrying capacity of ecosystems and biodiversity particularly in Africa. The role of the engineer and engineering education in addressing the issues of water, sanitation, energy, shelter, site planning, infrastructure, food production and distribution, communication, poverty and human welfare has been rather limited in Africa. It is therefore doubtful whether human welfare could be optimized through engineering education and practice in Africa for current and future generations. This paper sought to analyze the extent to which engineering education and practice can enhance human welfare in Africa through a multidimensional model approach to human welfare. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews with engineering educators, engineering students, engineers and beneficiaries of engineered facilities in Ghana. The College of Engineering of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology which has provided engineering education for students across Africa since 1952 was used as a proxy for an engineering educator in Africa. Even though Africa has produced engineers who have practiced in the field since the 1950s, the bridge between the engineer and the society he works for has been weak and wobbly. This has not worked well for human welfare improvement. The welfare implications of rethinking the engineer were also discussed.

Keywords: Africa, Engineering education, Ghana, Human welfare, Multidimensional model

Corruption and Development Administration in Africa (Review Completed - Accepted)

Sustainable development debate provides a new look at the institutional framework for corruption dynamics in Africa .Following the introduction of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and the Natural Resources Charter, it becomes relevant to evaluate theoretical debates on development administration and corruption interface from the institutional lens among African states, largely described as poor, rent seeking, predatory, prebendal, weak, soft, fragile, failed, vulnerable, pirate , vampire, underdeveloped etc. Whereas development failures are issues of growing scholarly concern in Africa, corruption which is conceived as diversion of public resource for private gains, becomes one central issue that requires adequate attention in the context of development discourse. This paper is framed within the context of corruption and development administration nexus using the institutional approach. It corroborates Sen’s model of “development as freedom”, and argues that development administration practice should now be guided by certain ethical guidelines defined on the basis of social justice, transparency, accountability and equality. Our findings posit that post colonial development debates should now go beyond a cursory look at development administration in the periphery societies as merely ‘comparative public administration’ rather explores how best institutional structures and actors at cross country levels could be sustainably tailored to confront contemporary development failures in Africa, influence the conduct of governance, reshape policy discourse and meet development needs. This new look seeks for alternative mechanisms for institutional overhaul of Africa’s public administration cognizant of the resurgent developmental states in East Asia where similar institutions play key developmental roles. The paper refutes existing practices in Africa where bureaucratic corruption undermines economic growth and sustainable development rather argues that development administration could be an influential apparatus for transparency, accountability and sustainable development.

Keywords: Africa, Development Administration, Developmental State, Systemic Corruption

Africa in the eyes of Cable Network News (CNN) AND Aljazeera: A comparative analysis (Published)

The thrust of this study was to ascertain the frequency and nature of coverage given to the African region by CNN and Aljazeera. The objectives however were predicated on the ideology that the mass media can facilitate global peace and understanding through meaningful exchange of information and ideas. The news programmes of CNN and Aljazeera were content analysed for fifteen (15) days with a view to streamlining the pattern of coverage given to Africa by the two networks. Analysis was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Inter-coder reliability showed a correlation of r=86. Data revealed that much of Africa was not reported by CNN in contradistinction to Aljazeera. It was further found that CNN had a preponderance of unfavourable news (75%) while Aljazeera had a fairly equitable distribution of 47% across the favourable and unfavourable categories. A synthesis of the data showed Aljazeera to be more favourably disposed towards the reportage of Africa. It was however recommended that global news media should enrich their portals with penetration. This no doubt will ensure the coverage of areas considered too distant to reach. It was further recommended that there should be an emerging drive by the governments of African countries to develop communication facilities that will help launch Africa to the world so as to break the dependency on global media

Keywords: Africa, Aljazeera, CNN, Global media, News flow

Women in the Promotion Of Cultural Security and Development in Africa (Published)

This paper examines the role of women in protecting and preserving the cultural heritage of the African continent which is an important ingredient for the nation’s development. It traces the indispensable role of the women to the creation of mankind at the Garden of Eden. However, despite the much desired role and contribution of the women to the development of the African nation, the imposition of colonialism in Africa laid the groundwork for the marginalization of the women folk, which eventually created gender inequality that weakened the contribution of the women. Nevertheless, African women have not given up the struggle. Women continue to play a leading role in preserving the farming tradition which is the main occupation in Africa by means of women organizations such as “Women in Agriculture in Nigeria” and “Women farmers Advancement Network”. Notwithstanding there are still a number of barriers against women effective participation in economic development activities which the study has identified to include; systemic gender biases in form of customs and beliefs; domestic workloads that impose severe time burden on women; limited access to credit, education and medical care. The expose of these barriers reveals the need for greater sensitization of the cultural and social barriers to encourage increased women participation in the economic activities in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, Cultural security, Development, Women