Tag Archives: Africa

Masculinity And Cultural Conflict in Chinu Achebe’s Things Fall Apart – A Study (Published)

The African people have varying behaviors, mannerisms, beliefs, thought patterns and way of interaction and all of these differences formed their culture and impacted their way of life. However, with the coming of the Europeans of Africa came cultural infiltration, pollution as well as alteration. This paper analyses Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart from the angle of masculinity and cultural clash as brought about by Westernization. The method of investigation is analytical and descriptive, using the formalist approach: that is looking at the actions, events, sentences and interactions of the characters in order to identity and discuss how males are portrayed, paying attention to issues of cultural realism, behaviors, actions and statements of the characters. The findings of the paper confirmed that African viewpoint of masculinity and cultural tends to be opposed to that of the Europeans, as the action and behaviors appropriate to a man in each society tend to differ. This led to different clashes from religious, cultural, ideological, to social beliefs. the conclusion that cultural clashes exist in the work and contributed to the final play out of the story, where the traditional belief system had to make way for Western ones; making things fall apart. The paper reveals that the male characters have both cultural and individual masculine idiosyncrasies and that the complexities of male roles confirm the pluralistic and slippery nature of masculinity.  

Keywords: Africa, Discourse, Gender, Hegemony, Sexuality

Les mécanismes de gouvernance des PME familiales en Afrique (Published)

The objective of this paper is to provide conceptual clarification of governance mechanisms based on a literature review applied to African family SMEs. The analysis of the literature review made it possible to understand the specificities of African family businesses through a better knowledge of their governance practices on the one hand, and by specific African management in the light of contemporary theories, on the other hand. The study analyses the cultural realities of the African field to propose an explanatory and interpretative framework in the context of African specific management.

Keywords: Africa, Chad, Culture, Family business, Governance, SMEs

Interrogating Capital Punishment and Indigenous Yoruba African Culture (Published)

This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).

Keywords: Africa, Capital, Culture, Folklore, Proverbs, Punishment, Yoruba

Is Privatization Correlated with Macroeconomic Management? (Evidence from Some Selected African Countries) (Published)

The study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic management and privatization. Many African countries have embarked on one form of privatization reform or the other since 1980 as one of the stringent conditions for accessing capital from the IMF and the World Bank. Secondly globalization and the gradually integration of the African economy into the global economy also means that Africa has to strategically develop its domestic market to cushion itself from fluctuations and probable contagion associated with global economic crisis that are always inevitable Stiglitz (2000) and Ojeaga P. (2012). The methods of estimation used are the OLS, linear mixed effects (LME), 2SLS and the GMM method of estimation. It was found that macroeconomic management has the capacity to affect the success of the privatization reform process. It was also found that privatization was not promoting growth in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, Game theory, Macroeconomic Management and Privatization, Trade

Challenges in Developing Indigenous Management Theories in Africa and the Implications for Management Practice (Published)

The paper examines the challenges against developing indigenous management theories in Africa and the implications for management practice in Africa. The paper recognizes that there is a dearth of African indigenous management theories, and attributes the situation to both economic and socio-cultural factors in Africa. It notes that the inability to develop indigenous management theories has caused indiscriminate importation of western theories for adoption in Africa, and this has huge negative impact on management practice in Africa. The paper posits that the uncritical adoption of western theories is a major reason for ineffective management practice in Africa and the poor performance of industries in the continent. It therefore calls on stakeholders to look away from foreign based theories and chart a way towards developing indigenous theories that account for African peculiarities, and encourage the application of such theories. It recommends that concerted efforts be made to overcome the challenges bedeviling the development of African indigenous management theories by committing to new ways of thinking and orientation about research and theories, and overhauling African value system towards supporting research leading to development of theories.

Keywords: Africa, Challenges, Implications, Indigenous, Management Practice, Management Theory

Understanding Rural-Urban Migration from the Perspectives of Migrants in Agbogbloshie, Ghana (Published)

About half of the urban growth in Africa is accounted for by migrants from rural areas yet we fail to understand migration from the perspectives of the migrants. This paper seeks to understand rural urban migration from the perspective of migrants and how this can inform rural development planning. A mixed research design was adopted to explore the decision making process around migration. In-depth interviews were held with migrants in Agbogbloshie and their families in Yendi where they have come from.  The paper found that while rural-urban migration will persist for a long time because of the deprivation in rural areas, migrants have plans to return home. Planning would need to shift from the conventional approaches of general rural development towards a good understanding of rural development problems unique to certain areas.  

Keywords: Africa, Development, Ghana, Migration, Planning, Urbanisation

Interrogating Capital Punishment and Indigenous Yoruba African Culture (Published)

This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).

Keywords: Africa, Capital, Culture, Folklore, Proverbs, Punishment, Yoruba

The Traditional Mbaise Society: Perspectives on Igbo Scio-Cultural History, 1500-1900 (Published)

This article examines aspects of the socio-cultural institutions and practices in the context of traditional Mbaise society and culture. The process of evolution and growth of Mbaise society was predicated on a number of institutions and practices which had socio-cultural, political, economic and religious implications. Appreciating the fact that social development is a vast area in socio-cultural history, the paper concentrated on the family structure, marriage institutions, religious beliefs and practices. Traditional Mbaise society was endowed with these great institutions and others which Christianity sought to wipe out, though without success. The impact of Christianity and other western influences notwithstanding, the paper argues that these institutions generated ideas, values, and norms which crystallized into the Mbaise identity and cosmology. Against the backdrop of the popular opinion held by the western writers to the effect that pre-colonial African societies were not part of world history and civilization (and hence incapable of initiating change), we argue further that this negative and bias narrative about pre-colonial African societies is now very anachronistic and no longer worthy of intellectual attention by scholars of both African and European persuasions

Keywords: Africa, Christianity, Mbaise, Religion., Socio-cultural, Tradition, history

Hegel and Moral Responsibility (Published)

It is a truism that the philosophic outlook of any age determines the political, economic and social outlook of that age. Hegelianism was once the dominant philosophy in Europe and thus, determined that period. For Hegel, the Absolute Mind which unfolded in various forms and stages was above the demands of objective morality. This paper attempts to hold Hegel on this and vehemently argues against this. Hence, no matter how the Absolute Spirit arrests any individual or nation, such is very much accountable for its actions and inactions. In this regard then, the  paper condemns all the atrocities committed by both the historical individuals and historical nations of Hegel and calls for redressing of such actions by way of apologies, reparation and investments.

 

Keywords: Africa, Hegel, Historical individuals, Historical nations, Moral responsibility

The Untold History of Neocolonialism in Africa (1960-2011) (Published)

After the Second World War, the imperialist trends of the eighteenth and nineteenth century began to decline. Through collective struggles, the Africans achieved independence from the whites. But though they attained freedom, they could not imagine the fact that it was just a treacherous exchange of power between the out-going masters and few of their faithful heirs. In the colonial period, the European rulers propagated that as the Africans had no culture and history of their own, it was their holy duty to civilize the native Africans. Thus, they regarded themselves superior to Africans whose culture they considered inferior, uncivilized, and savage. In the name of spreading civilization, they dominated, oppressed, tyrannized and persecuted the native Africans not only economically and politically, but also culturally. When the Europeans left, the Africans got political freedom, but the foul practice of imperialism did not end. It appeared in a new form namely neocolonialism which the scholars had branded as the worst form of imperialism. This camouflaged imperialist practice is turning Africa into a museum of acute poverty, hunger, corruption and famine. The paper aims at elucidating the effects of neocolonialism in Africa from four major perspectives– economic, political, cultural and literary.

Keywords: Africa, Cultural Imperialism, Disillusionment of African Writers., Imperialism, Neocolonialism

Context as the Principal Determinant of the Behaviour of States in Global Politics (Published)

This paper seeks to offer an explanation of the behaviour of states in global politics. It argues that a key lesson we can learn from international history is that the behaviour of states in global politics is principally determined by the context in which they behave or act; context determines whether states behave in line with the tenets of realism, liberalism, constructivism, English School, critical theories, or a combination of two or more theories. In order to concretise the discussion, the paper does a historical analysis of the international history of Africa which proves that context is the principal determinant of the behaviour of states in global politics; this is not only true of African international history, but also true of world history. Then the paper concludes that the sooner we learn this lesson, the better we will be able to create contexts that will engender desirable state behaviour!

Keywords: Africa, Context, Global Politics, International History, State, Theory

Mass Media and the Politics of Underdevelopment in Africa: Nigeria in Perspective (Published)

Mass media have been an indispensable fulcrum of development, especially in the West from where they were imported to Africa. However, realities in Africa continent have failed and weakened mass media potential as development resource, as vast population of Africans live in the rural areas without access to mass media offerings. Besides, those areas have poverty of electricity, good roads and other facilities, making the mass media dread to tread the terrains. Illiteracy, diseases and poverty define the rural areas of Africa, and a man needs a measure of education to understand the media messages. This has put the government and development agents at sixes and sevens with regard to

Keywords: Africa, Mass Media, Under-Development

Polygamy and Christianity in Africa (Published)

Whereas it is believed erroneously among many people that Polygamy implies the art of a man being married to more than one wife, the true definition of polygamy implies the idea of a man being married to more than one wife (Polygamy) or a woman being married to more than one man at the same time (Polyandry), or more than one man being married to more than one woman all at the same time which is communal marriage. It is the intention of this paper to examine Polygamy especially, which is the idea of a man being married to more than one wife concurrently at the same time. I shall, however, use the word ‘Polygamy’ because of its popular usage in spite of the fact that I am aware that the right word is Polygamy.

Keywords: Africa, Christianity, Polygamy

African Theories of Development and the Reality of Underdevelopment (Published)

The urge for the development of the African continent immediately after independence pushed the immediate post-colonial African leaders into experimenting different kinds of developmental systems. Some of these leaders copied the Western systems in operation at that time whereas some others adapted and adopted them. The successors of these post-colonial leaders also followed this trend. All these efforts could not bring the desired development as a result of one basic factor – dependence index. It is an existential fact that no country or continent ever developed by majorly depending on others. The key to development is real ‘ independence’. Equally true is that no country/continent ever developed without the production of materials and goods. Being a consumer nation or continent is to invariably jettison development. This paper calls for ‘ inward looking’ in the developmental efforts of the African continent and minimally look outward.

Keywords: Africa, Development, Leaders, Underdevelopment

Interrogating Capital Punishment and Indigenous Yoruba African Culture (Published)

This work interrogates capital punishment and indigenous Yoruba African culture. We examine punishment as a concept and the four theories of punishment which include; Utilitarian theory of punishment, Deterrent theory of punishment, Reform theory of punishment, Retributive theory of punishment. We also look into what punishment is and what punishment is not and then carry out a brief analysis of capital punishment. We then examine Yoruba African culture with respect to capital punishment; the work show clearly that Yoruba culture abhor capital punishment in their laws, the implement it and supported it with different proverbs and folklore stories. Today, there have being clamoring from every angle for the abolition of capital punishment in our society and Yoruba as a nation should not be left alone because; “Ikú tó ń pa ojúgbà ẹni, òwe ló ń pa fún ni” (‘the death that is consuming one’s peers is proverbially warning of one’s own impending similar death’).

Keywords: Africa, Capital, Culture, Folklore, Proverbs, Punishment, Yoruba

Cyber Security, Sovereignty and Democratic Governance in Africa, Challenges (Published)

Much of Africa is presently firmly committed to advancing the standards of democracy and human rights that has become topical over the past two decades. Priority reforms to forge a non formidable democratic rule that will secure and maintain the sovereignty of the African nation include the need to improve on both the information society and knowledge economy. This shades light on one of the key phenomenon in the digital age which is our strong dependence on information systems in our life styles, living conditions and our security. Cyber security is a phenomenon which is closely tied to the rapid expansion of information and communication technologies. It has taken a global proportion and occurs across Africa as well as the world in general such that no individual society can disregard it. But Africa has a huge challenge on the face of high rate of cyber crime, cyber terrorism, cyber fraud, cyber attacks and cyber warfare. These cyber threats do not only constitute challenges to humanity and its governance mechanism but they also show us beyond doubt that our policies, institutions, infrastructure and our defense and security systems are not only unprotected but are fragile in nature. The cyber criminals used these threats to continue their malicious pursuit for spying, destabilizing people, organizations and governance perpetrating sabotage or destroying information systems thereby provoking fear psychosis. This highlights the shortcomings and weaknesses of security, governance systems and sovereignty in general. In this environment of growing insecurity, the digital divide is widening to Africa’s detriment and getting trivialized in the same way as poverty that ravages Africa. The continent is still not enjoying all the dividend of digital technology and yet it suffers all the disadvantages more than any other. This work is set to anticipate and analyse governance trend in the face of Africa’s cyber security and sovereignty issues and challenges. To do so we shall identify the barriers to digital sovereignty by securing the digital and technological sovereignty of states in Africa by proposing ways and means of achieving this digital sovereignty. Again, we shall suggest ways of promoting democracy by preserving fundamental rights and civil liberties especially by protecting personal data and to propose the areas where Africa needs to refine its cyber legislation so as to deepen trust in the information society. This is what this work is set to achieve.

Keywords: Africa, Democratic, Governance, Sovereignty., cyber security

The African Meta-Medical Science of Ukpugho Ukpong (Soul Transplantation): A Philosophical Critique (Published)

The human soul has been believed to be immaterial and immortal element which exclusively inheres in the human body. Ukpugho ukpong (soul transplant) is an ancient meta-medical science of the Annang and Ibibio people, which is hinged on the belief that the human soul is transcendent and it exclusively inheres in proxy animal; that the soul is mortal, and can be surgically transplanted in the likeness of somatic tissue transplant. This study aimed at carrying out a philosophical critique of this belief in order to determine its significance as a metaphysical concept. It also aimed at critically examining the philosophical as well as sociological discussions on the subject of ukpuho ukpong. The study was discussed on the framework of African concept of mind which holds that the soul has dual nature, namely – the Active Principle and the Quiescent Counterpart. The paper debunks the doctrines of metempsychosis and transmigration as alien to African metaphysics. The method of ordinary language analysis was employed to analyze the concepts ukpong and mbukpong. In conclusion, the paper made the following observations that: the soul is transcendent but perishable substance, the mind has dual nature, the soul does not transmigrate and the science of ukpuho ukpong is not a pseudo-metaphysical concept but was founded on African logic of dualistic mind. The paper notes that the science of ukpuho ukpong is bugged with a number of unresolved philosophical problems. Despite that the paper discovered that the science of ukpuho ukpong can contribute significantly to meta-medicine and sustainable environmental values.

Keywords: Africa, Annang, Metempsychosis, Mind, Proxy Animal, Soul Transplant, Ukpugho Ukpong

Appraising Constitutionalism and Good Governance in Africa (Published)

This work interrogates constitutionalism and good governance in Africa. Constitutionalism is a form of political thought and action that seeks to prevent tyranny and guarantees the liberty and rights of individuals within the state. It is also an essential tool to achieve public accountability, the end of which is good governance. While good governance entails efficient and effective use of power and resources. In this paper, the researcher studies the governance in Africa with the hope of finding out whether the system feet in with what is call good governance as it is been champion all over the world. In the course of this research we discovered that a lot of hindrances are on the African way to the realization of good governance, colonialist and African leaders bear the blame. The work concluded that; since colonialist are at the fore front of propagation for good governance, it is very important for them to correct the wrong of the past and where they are still serving as hindrances; they should endeavour to make an amendment for the good of mankind. And at the same time the Africa leaders should be ready to learn from the past and make necessary amendment so that Africa can move forward.

Keywords: Accountability, Africa, Constitutionalism, Governance, Propagation, Tyranny.

Expanding Private Higher Educational Institutions in Africa: Implications for Good Governance (Published)

The conventional wisdom is that the proliferation of and concomitant increase in access to, tertiary education is central to bridging poverty gap in developing country and fast-tracking development. Scholars have also proposed the existence of a nexus between such educational advancements and good governance, especially in terms of the multiplier effect on political education, public participation and public accountability. The proposed paper assessed the conventional wisdom on the nexus between education, development and democracy in Africa drawing key insights from cross-sectional data obtained from national universities in the sub-region. The paper challenged the orthodoxy dominant within the international development community that increase in tertiary education is directly related to improved development and good governance. Although the number of universities have grown over the decade, the paper is keen to show that aside from increasing enrollment and improving access (to the neglect of quality) the preponderance of privately-owned universities, many of them with constricted visions on the open knowledge production and ideals that universities are supposed to represent and pursue, is problematic; indeed, as the paper argues, the political economy that drive their establishment and proliferation does not automatically translate into improved access due to skyrocketing school fees and sundry charges in a continent with a record of about 70% poverty ratio. Furthermore, the peculiar teaching curriculum and authoritarian management styles of the growing number of private universities have the potential to blunt the political and civic consciousness of their students and, in the final analysis, deepen the festering governance crisis in the country.

Keywords: Africa, Education Funding, Governance Crisis, Higher Education, Nigeria, Public Financial Management

Triangulation Analysis of Complex Health Organizations in French-Speaking Black Africa Methods (Published)

African evaluate complex organizations of a public nature, and regional or international scope including non-governmental or humanitarian organizations working in the field of public health is not easy. Many problems related to planning of the study and the lack of relevant methodological tools to better decode the organizational phenomena and make sense of them both descriptive and prescriptive often pose significant obstacles. This is to contribute to solving these problems that should adopt a pluralistic approach or policy based on methodological triangulation. It is the integration of the various methodological tools (triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods and triangulation of data sources). The use of this approach has allowed to know the story of three regionally-based organizations based in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, their actual performance and future prospects. We have also been able to verify the rigor of the method, especially in terms of relevance of the observations and criterion validity of the content of investigations

Keywords: Africa, Evaluation, Organizational Performance, Triangulation, public health