The Role of Adult Education in Poverty Alleviation among Nigerian Rural Women: A Panacea for the Achievement of Goal One of the Sustainable Development Goals. (Published)
Poverty has been identified as a major challenge to the growth and development of African countries. It is also recognized that women and girls who reside in the rural areas constitute the largest percentage of the poor in Nigeria. Various poverty alleviation programmes have been adopted by successive governments to address poverty issue in Nigeria but the fact is that the condition of the poor has not improved. This paper examines the importance of adult education in alleviation of poverty among rural women in order to achieve “Goal one” of the Sustainable development goals. The paper posited that adult education for women is a powerful tool which will break the endemic cycle of poverty in rural communities. The writer concluded that low level of education among rural women and their non-participation in poverty alleviation programmes compound their poverty problems. Thus, the paper recommended among others that government should step up investment in adult education programmes and involve rural women in poverty alleviation programmes.
Repositioning Adult Education to Boost Socio-Economic Transformation in Nigeria through Inclusion of Environmental Literacy (Published)
Briefly put, Socio-Economic Transformation (SET) as a concept, refers to a process of sustainable improvement in individual (per-capita) and national (Gross Domestic Product) incomes resulting in improved standard of living and poverty reduction through intra- and inter-sectorial mobility of labour, following quality education and skills development. Using this definition and available statistics to assess the current state of SET in Nigeria, this paper has shown the country’s failure to achieve her related dreams, plans and visions over time. The contributions of Adult Education (AE) to SET in Nigeria have also been established in this paper to be limited by the virtual absence of environmental content in most AE programmes. Environmental Literacy (EL), on the other hand, has been shown to be imbued with significant environmental content related to SET, and which could remediate the said limitations of AE. Accordingly, the paper recommends repositioning of AE through inclusion of EL to boost Nigeria’s SET. The country’s National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education is recommended to pilot the repositioning process. Furthermore, the author of this paper has included here, a practicable diagrammatic model for possible adoption to facilitate the process of including EL in AE.
The Role of Adult Education in Achieving Sustainable Community Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the role of adult education in achieving sustainable community development in Akamkpa local government area of Cross River State. Two research questions were formulated for the study. The design for this study was descriptive survey. The population of the study was four hundred and two (402) participants of adult education programme for sustainable community development in the study area, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to draw the sample size of 201 respondents. Researchers developed questionnaire titled: Role of Adult Education Sustainable Community Development Questionnaire (RAESCDQ). The instrument for data collection was a 10 items questionnaire which was validated by research experts and tested with a reliability estimate of 0.87 using Cronbach alpha statistics. The data collected were analysed using frequency and percentages. The findings which emerged from the study revealed that lack of curriculum, content of adult education, research facilities, facilitators and insufficient budgeting allocation in Akamkpa local government area. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that adult education study centres should be built and well equipped with learning facilities to attract learners and also non-governmental organizations should support government in funding, providing, learning and infrastructural needs that will make adult education programmes more effective for sustainable community development.
Using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Adult Education for Promoting Right Democratic Values in Nigeria (Published)
Democracy as a system of government that recognizes the power of the people to rule is practiced in Nigeria by adults that are constitutionally defined as those who are 18 years of age and above. This paper observes that the people who should be in control of power have not recognized themselves as true power-holders who should be actively involved in democratic processes but are rather used by perceived “power-holders” in distorting democratic processes which bestowed power on them. This is attributed to lack of knowledge of the power bestowed on them by democracy to elect and remove any official who fails to protect their interests, welfare and aspirations. The paper establishes that this lack of knowledge stems from lack of quality information on democracy and its nexus and hence the bedrock of the prevailing democratic situations in Nigeria characterised by various negative democratic manoeuverings (such as electoral malpractices, denial of right to choose leaders or representatives, lack of freedom of speech, etc) leading to inability to deliver dividends of good governance to the people. This according to the paper leads to social ills and problems such as crimes, poverty, unemployment, etc. The paper proffers solution to this problem by proposing ways through which information and communication technology (ICT) could be used as a vehicle through which a large proportion of adults could be conscientized on the strength and power bestowed on them through democratic processes. The paper concludes that when people (adults) exercise their democratic powers and strength, dividends of good governance would be delivered while social vices and problems would be averted.
Environmental Adult Education (EAE) As a Tool for Promoting Environmental Stewardship Practices in Nigeria (Published)
The paper focused on the use of environmental adult education in promoting environmental stewardship practices in Nigeria. Environmental Adult education is an educational process that has the target to impart on adult members of the society elements of knowledge of environmental concepts and systems, relevant skills to identify and resolve environmental issues and manage environmental resources, right attitude and behaviour to relate responsibly with the environment and the motivation to act for the health of both the environment and those that live in it. An environmental steward operates the elements inherent in environmental adult education and is deemed to be one who as a result of the awareness, knowledge, skills, good behaviour and attitude he has acquired is moved to act to protect, conserve, improve and restore environmental resources for environmental sustainability. The goals and objectives of environmental adult education were examined to indicate its’ efficacy in the development of environmental stewards.
Competency Improvement Needs of Facilitators for Enhancing Adult Education Programme in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)
We designed this study to determine the skill improvement needs of facilitators for enhancing Adult learning programmes in Edo state, Nigeria. The research design was a descriptive survey. The population of the study was 549. Simple random sampling technique was used to drown a sample of 108 facilitators by balloting. Two research queries were posed with two null hypotheses to guide the study. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The questionnaire instrument was subjected to face and content validation using three experts from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. We used Cronbach alpha to determine the reliability coefficient of the instrument. The result was .85 and .68 for each query. We analyzed the data collected using mean and standard deviation to answer the research queries and used t-test statistics to analyze the hypotheses at (P>0.05) level of significance. The result showed that the skill improvement needs of facilitators to enhance adult education programme include: the ability to find the right condition that will enable achievement of programme goals, analytical ability to evaluate the various ways in the light of multiple factors that may hinder or help in programme implementation, and the ability to sequentially coordinate activities for a smooth flow of programme activities. It also includes listening ability, knowing the demographic nature of messages, and presentation of subject matter in the right context for learners understanding among others. We recommended that facilitators should be equipped with these skills to improve adult education programmes in Edo state Nigeria.
This paper examined how adult education can be repositioned to address youth restiveness in Rivers State. The study was anchored on John Burton Human Needs Theory. The key instrument for data collection was Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in three Local Government Areas in Rivers State. The views of experts in the field of adult education through interviews were also used to complement the experience and personal observation of the writer. The findings of the study revealed that the causes of youth restiveness include illiteracy, poverty, unemployment and insincerity of the community leaders and the activities of the politicians. The author concluded that adult education if repositioned can address youth restiveness and other emerging issues in the society. Based on the findings, the writer recommended among others that adult education objectives, scope and curriculum should be revisited to address the developmental needs of the youths and that adult education agencies as a matter of urgency should form a synergy
This paper examines indigenous adult education as a vital tool for imparting skills and techniques and instructing members of any society in the accepted values, norms and practices for achieving sustainable community development. Aims of indigenous adult education were highlighted and discussed. Indigenous adult education programmes were identified and their imperatives in achieving sustainable community development examined. The writers concluded that indigenous adult education has been a major source of peaceful co-existence among Nigerians but has been grossly neglected in favour of formal education system. The writers suggest that indigenous adult education should be promoted to complement the formal education system to reduce moral decadence in Nigerian society and attain sustainability in community development.
This article attempts to explore the relationship between active educational techniques and effective learning in vocational training centres. In particular, the effect of active educational techniques on the effectiveness of the adult educational process is explored. The analysis of the findings highlights, first of all, the great need for the use of adult learning techniques, their importance and their positive educational outcomes. In addition, it is noted that the most important reasons for abandoning an adult program are inefficiency in learning and lack of respect.
The Contribution of in-Company Training to Skills Improvement and Human Resources Development (Published)
The following research comes to explore the importance and contribution of in-company training human resources to the business. The literature review shows that education, as a tool for shaping attitudes and attitudes and developing new skills, can play a key role in improving staff skills and thus influencing the overall growth and competitiveness of an enterprise. In the present study, a survey of mixed methods was conducted with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data and with sample employees from the Greek construction company “Avax”. Answers confirm that education provides employees with all the skills and support they need in order to be more efficient and thus increase their competitiveness and productivity. This research adds further data to the area of in-company education and training, since this kind of research in Greece is limited. In addition the impact of the economic crisis and the change in the culture of businesses trying to survive through training and investing in human resources is highlighted.
In recessionary economies like Nigeria the populace are in constant state of agony and anguish. The challenging situation manifests in less trade and industrial activities, high rate of unemployment, and experience of inflationary trends by economic analysts. In this era of knowledge economy, the high cultures of Nigeria has remained untapped especially the art of making sculptures and other relevant crafts. This study therefore explores the potency of high culture (sculptures) in economic recovery. Acquisition of skills to make sculptures and other relevant crafts/decorations is an essential antidote to societal ills such as unemployment, social vices, inflation and the nation’s economic recession at large. For the purpose of continuity, the adults should teach these skills to the younger generation through Adult Education which is both non-formal and informal. It is therefore recommended inter alia that the National Council for Arts and Culture should encourage the acquisition of those skills regarded as high culture.
Demographic Factors Influencing Adult Participation In Christian Education Programs Among Episcopal Churches In Southern California (Published)
The capability of a free, mature faith response to the Gospel is more in Adult Christians than in the young Christians. It is thus imperative that the opportunities of Christian education are by extension made available to adults. This paper is an investigation into the reasons why adults participate in congregationally sponsored Christian education learning events in the church. Adult participation in Christian education is examined in relation to selected demographic variables and the religious motivation of adults. Understanding the motivational orientations of adults serves as a beginning point for church leaders and directors of Christian education to develop and organize educational programs that meet the needs of adult learners. Motivation to participate was measured using an adaptation of the Education Participation Scale (EPS) (Boshier, 1991). The factors include; Spiritual Growth, Cognitive Interest, Church and Community Service, Education Preparation, Social Contact, Family Togetherness and Social Stimulation. A sample size of 454 Episcopalian adults that constituted 63% females and 37% males, averaging 50 years participated in the study undertaken in Southern California. Statistical procedures used to analyze data in this study included Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). All hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of .05. In relation to demographic variables, intrinsically motivated respondents who had a higher level of education attended more programs. Singles tended to be extrinsically motivated in their participation of educational activities. Nonetheless, no correlations were found between age and the Religious Orientation
Utilization of Adult Education Strategies in handling situational crisis in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. (Published)
Situational crisis is becoming rampant in our tertiary institutions. The frequency of its occurrence signals the need for proactive plans and strategies to curb and diffuse the perceived effects of crisis in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The process requires the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes needed to bring about behavioral changes that will enable children, youth and adults to prevent conflict and crisis, and peacefully resolve same at event of its occurrence, through the creation of conducive atmosphere of peace, at all levels of relationship (interpersonal intrapersonal, intergroup within the system. The paper is focused on providing alternative approach in the handling of crises in Nigerian tertiary institutions so as to avert the irreparable damages that could result from crises. The concept of conflict/crisis were discussed, and causes identified. Adult education strategies such as conscientization, dialogue and peace education were proffered to curb crises in the system. The study also outlined other ways forward which if followed will address the problem of conflicts/crises in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
Insight into the Forms of Adult Literacy Education Programme as Agents of Transformation in Nigerian Democratic Society in Terms of Equity and Poverty Reduction (Published)
Though adult education has been identified and perceived for its complexities, the national policy on education in Nigeria and constitution ascribed its functionality to the country’s democratic situation since independence. It democracy, a social mechanism for solving the problems of societal decision making among conflicting interest groups id tied to literacy, participation and education of the adults should be accorded a critical focus and situationally taken care of. This important factor in a democratic setting of Nigeria has not been given adequate attention like that of the youth. It is in the light of this, that this paper addresses the forms of adult literacy education programmes as agents of Nigerian transformational democracy in terms of equity and poverty reduction. The paper concludes that literacy education for the adults had undergone significant changes functionally in terms of felt needs, quality and control since independence. It also suggests that provision of enlightenment programmes should be addressed aggressively.
Everyone possesses creativity and this ability is a normal distribution. However, most creativity researchers select eminent scientists or artists. In addition, in the education literature, creativity research focuses more on children or adolescents (especially college students) rather than older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the intellectual perceptions of creativity in older adults found in scholarly journals. This review attempted to sort out the assumptions underlying the portrayal of older adults and their relationship with creativity in scholarly journals from 1980 to 2012. After reviewing 56 journal articles, two themes emerged: the optimistic view of older adult lives and the need for creativity for successful aging. There is a call from not only educators but also policy makers to invest more funds and energy to promote creativity for (older) adult learners.