Paddy farmers’ knowledge, perception, and satisfaction on the use of farm machinery in Nepal (Published)
Agricultural mechanization refers to the use of different power sources as well as enhanced farm tools and equipment to decrease human and draught animal labor, improve cropping intensity, precision, and timeliness of crop input usage, and reduce losses at various phases of crop production. This research tried to assess paddy farmers’ knowledge, views, and contentment with the use of agricultural machinery in the districts of Jhapa, Kapilbastu, and Kailali using a multistage purposive sample technique. The survey research method was used for the investigation. Descriptive statistics and properly constructed scales were used to analyze the data. According to the findings, respondents had only a hazy understanding (0.50) of the critical roles of agricultural machinery in rice production. The total amount of machinery on hand is moderate (0.43). The most frequent piece of machinery possessed by respondents was a tractor (0.65), followed by a knapsack sprayer (0.61). Over one fourth of the respondents (0.28) had a good image of agricultural machinery and were satisfied with its use (0.4). While respondents indicated a high amount of restriction (0.7) when it came to utilizing agricultural machinery. As a result, adopting a varied range of farm machinery should be seen positively in order to increase the commercialization of paddy farming. Farmers would be more inclined to use farm machinery if farm machinery information and skills were spread, as well as supported with grants.
Adoption of Improved Wheat Varieties by Wheat Producers in the Bale Zone of Ethiopia (Published)
Wheat is a strategic food security crop in the Ethiopia. Improving production and productivity of smallholder farmers through adoption of improved wheat varieties is one of the measures presumed to bridge the persistent food gap in the country. There are several socio-economic and institutional factors that constraint farmers from adoption of improved wheat varieties and empirically unidentified in the study area. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing farmer’s decision in adoption of improved wheat varieties in the study area. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods such as household survey, key informant interview and focused group discussion were utilized for this study. The probit model result showed that sex of household head, land holding size, livestock holding size, access to credit, access to market information, frequency of extension contacts, educational level of household head, membership in cooperatives and perception on yield capacity significantly influenced adoption decision of improved wheat varieties. Therefore, policy and development interventions should give emphasis towards the improvement of such economical and institutional support system so as to achieve wider adoption of improved wheat varieties, increased production and productivity of smallholder farmers.
Citation: Nasir Abda (2022) Adoption of Improved Wheat Varieties by Wheat Producers in the Bale Zone of Ethiopia, International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies, Vol.9, No.2, pp.1-19
Determinants Factors of Digital Financial Services Adoption and Usage Level: Empirical Evidence from Ghana (Published)
Digital Financial Services (DFS) have the potential to benefit people in poverty in developing economies significantly. DFS provides a variety of economical, convenient, and secure financial services. However, the DFS adoption rate is slow in Ghana due to being over-reliant on personal cash delivery. Substantial variation in adoption levels across important socio-demographic characteristics is another factor. Using a representative national dataset from Ghana, this study explored digital financial services adoption determinants. It quantified the role played by each of the six incorporating factors and controlled four socio-demographic characteristics. The work also assessed the adoption level among key socio-demographic groups. The determinants of DFS are estimated using logit specification, and average marginal effects are computed. The logit model indicated that effort expectancy, awareness, facilitating conditions, transaction cost, security and privacy, and self-efficacy positively influence DFS adoption and increase DFS adoption by 0.7%, 2.3%, 28.5%, 3%, 2.1%, and 2.4%, respectively. Additionally, the results indicated a significant disparity in adoption levels across key socio-demographic variables, including education level, gender, urban and rural residence, and administrative regions of Ghana. Given the substantial influence of facilitating conditions and transaction costs on DFS adoption, we argue that it would be advisable to incorporate digital infrastructure development and lower transaction cost measures into the planning of any intervention.
Citation: Isaac Anane, and Fengying Nie (2022) Determinants Factors of Digital Financial Services Adoption and Usage Level: Empirical Evidence from Ghana, International Journal of Management Technology, Vol.9, No 1, pp. 26-47
Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Major Problems Faced by the Farmers in Adopting Brri Dhan29 in the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh (Published)
The main purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and major problems faced by the farmers in adopting BRRI dhan29 in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted with 90 farmers in three villages of Batiaghata union. The majority (50.00%) of the respondents were middle aged, 80.00% had primary level of education. The highest 46.67% had small farm size, 60.00% of medium income and 71.11% had poor training experience. The highest (80.00%) proportion of the respondents had medium innovativeness, 74.44% medium extension contact and 83.33% medium adoption of BRRI dhan29. Higher yield, availability of quality seed, and short duration variety was the 3rd, 4th, and 5th statement for the respondent’s perceived benefits of adopting BRRI dhan29 cultivation. Unable to tolerate salinity at matured time was the main important problem for the respondents and its Problem Confrontation Index (PCI) found 311.
Citation: Shamsun Nahar, and Md. Zulfiker Ali (2021) Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Major Problems Faced By the Farmers in Adopting Brri Dhan29 in the Coastal Areas Of Bangladesh, International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies, Vol.8, No.4, pp.36-52
The Relationship between Farmers’ Attitude towards the Improved Cassava Processing Technology and Adoption (Published)
This paper discusses the relationship between farmers’ attitude towards improved cassava processing technology and its adoption. About 360 participants [181 (50.3%) males and 178 (49.7%) females], strategically selected from Serengeti, Sengerema and Biharamulo districts in Mara, Mwanza and Kagera regions respectively in Tanzania responded questions on both attitude towards cassava processing technology and adoption of the same. Chi-square test indicated farmers’ difference in two components of adoption (involvement in pre-processing tasks and utilization of the cassava processed products) with two components (instrumental attitude and cognitive attitude) of attitude towards improved cassava processing technology. Further, direct logistic regression analysis indicated that attitude was not the only and sufficient variable uniquely explaining adoption of improved cassava processing technology despite having an influence on the same. Other variables such as attendance to training in improved cassava processing technology and intention to adopt the technology also uniquely explained adoption of improved cassava processing technology.
The Extent of Awareness and Adoption of UNESCO Conservation Guidelines Restoration Practices by the University Library Staff in South –East Nigeria (Published)
This study is to find out the extent of awareness and adoption of UNESCO Conservation Guidelines restoration practices by the university library staff in south east Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The statistical tests used in the data analysis included the summated score and t-test. The research questions were analyzed using the Summated score while the hypotheses were tested using the t-test. The result shows that university library staff extent of awareness of UNESCO restoration practices is accepted as being above average for only three (3) out of the twenty-two (22) items considered under UNESCO restoration practices. The accepted items are those with mean scores greater than the expected value of 3.00 on a 5-point Likert scale. We therefore conclude that there is a significant difference between university library staff extent of awareness and extent of adoption of UNESCO restoration practices. Furthermore, the result also indicates that the overall extent of awareness of UNESCO restoration practices by university library staff is 1.94 with a standard deviation of 0.27 on a 5-point Likert scale. The computed t-value is −64.540 with an associated significance probability of 1.0000, which is greater than 0.05. Thus, the test is not significance at 5% level of significance, since P>0.05. We therefore conclude that the extent of awareness of restoration practices in the UNESCO Conservation Guidelines by university library staff in South-East Nigeria is below average. The result also shows that the university library staff extent of adoption of UNESCO restoration practices is accepted as being above average for only three (3) out of the twenty-two (22) items considered under UNESCO restoration practices. The accepted items are those with mean scores greater than the expected value of 3.00 on a 5-point Likert scale. Furthermore, the reslt also indicates that the overall extent of adoption of UNESCO restoration practices by university library staff is 1.57 with a standard deviation of 0.15 on a 5-point Likert scale. The computed t-value is −155.561 with an associated significance probability of 1.0000, which is greater than 0.05. Thus, the test is not significance at 5% level of significance, since P>0.05. We therefore conclude that the extent of adoption of restoration practices in the UNESCO Conservation Guidelines by university library staff in South-East Nigeria is below average. Based on the findings, we recommends that: Government should sponsor Library staff to workshops, seminars and conferences nationally and internationally on the UNESCO Conservation Guidelines for acquisition of better Knowledge needed in using the UNESCO Conservation Guidelines.The university should provide an enabling environment to help the university library staff work effectively and use the UNESCO Conservation Guidelines in their restoration practices. The University Library staff should visit other Institutions of higher learning that uses UNESCO Conservation Guidelines for better knowledge, improvement and greater productivity.
Availability and Use of Agricultural Innovations and Adoption of Animal and Crop Technologies among Farmers in Sokoto State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assesses the availability and use of agricultural innovations and adoption of animal and crop technologies among farmers in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data from one hundred and fifty respondents using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. PPMC and t-test was used. Respondent’s mean age was 48 years’ 99.1% had contact with extension agents; 88.4% had access to between 1 and 5 hectares of land; 33.6% engaged in crop production; 29.9% engaged in animal rearing. Recommended crop spacing was adopted by 36.6% of the respondents; while 29.9% adopted improved breeds of livestock. Agricultural Development Project (ADP) was the most accessed (X = 2.97) information source. There was a significant relationship between use of agricultural innovations and adoption of both crop and animal technologies (r = 0.262; p < 0.000), while significant difference (t = 3.068; p < 0.05) existed in the adoption of crop technologies between respondents with low and high access to agricultural innovations. Efforts by relevant agencies to improve the availability and use of innovations relating to appropriate crop and animal technologies will ultimately increase farmer’s adoption of these technologies.
The main objective of this paper is to assess the drivers of adoption of certified rice seeds among farmers in Kilombero District of Tanzania and as well assess the factors that influences the intensity of adoption of certified rice seeds. The random sampling technique was used to collect data from 130 rice farmers through in-person interview. The data were analyzed using two econometric techniques. Firstly, a binary logit model was used to identify factors influencing adoption of certified rice seeds. Secondly, Tobit regression was used to analyze the determinants of the extent of adoption of certified rice seeds. Empirical findings of this study show that factors such as marital status, access to land, membership of farm association and income from off-farm activities, significantly influenced the adoption of certified rice seeds while the factors that significantly influenced the extent of adoption of certified rice seeds in the study area include education level of the farmers, marital status and the farmer’s access to land. From a policy perspective, this study recommends that farmers should be assisted to improve on these factors because adoption of certified rice seed varieties is important for increasing agricultural productivity.
Analysis of the Adoption of Organic Farming Innovations in Pagerwojo District, Tulungagung Regency (Published)
The objectives of research are; (1) to analysis the adoption of organic farming innovations in Pagerwojo District, Tulungagung Regency, and (2) to determine the level of income from the adoption of organic farming innovations. Research is conducted in Pagerwojo District Tulungagung Regency, from April to August of 2020. Method of research is survey and sampling technique is simple random sampling. Result of research indicates that the application of organic vegetable farming in Pagerwojo District, Tulungagung Regency is divided into four categories, which are: conventional category for very low application rate, knowing- organic category for low application rate, interest-in-organic category for moderate application rate, and toward-organic category for high application rate
Factors Challenging the Adoption of Cloud Computing Application in E-Learning among Polytechnics in Northeastern Nigeria (Published)
The trend of teaching and learning actives is moving fast towards cloud computing application as the universe becoming global village. The aim of this research is to determine factors that are responsible for the challenges of adopting cloud computing application in e-learning system among Polytechnics in the North East, Nigeria. Sampling techniques was used in to gathering data and average coded total was used in data analysis. The findings of the research revealed that cloud computing application is associated with following challenges: delay/denial of service, compatibility issue, ICT infrastructure, lack of trained personnel; breach of trust, poor policy, managerial issue, confidentiality, integrity, inadequate user access and technological bottlenecks. Also, the research shown that academic and IT staff are familiar with cloud computing application. The study recommended among other things using compile application (user will not have access to the address link) for effective security.
Exploring the Effectiveness of Agricultural Technologies Training among Smallholder Farmers in Sub-Saharan African Communities (Published)
Knowledge and capacity development on improved farm technologies and techniques are essential for agricultural growth. Despite the extension effort to facilitate adoption and diffusion of innovation through farmers visit and training expected transformation in food production process is yet to be achieved hence, there is the need to evaluate the effectiveness of farmers’ engagement in technologies development. This study was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of agricultural technologies training among smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African communities. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select 200 smallholder farmers. The respondents consist of the lead and trainee farmers in the spread of knowledge and support the technology adoption which is the distinctive aspect of the study. Data were collected using focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires. The collected data were analysed using deceptive statistics, likert type scales and spearman correlation. The results of the study revealed that agricultural technologies training were very effective among the smallholder farmers. A great proportion (70.5%) of the farmers indicated that the training was very effective. There was a rapid increase (85%) in the level of adoption of agricultural technologies after the participatory training among the respondents compared to pre-training (49.5%). The findings also revealed that 13 Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) technologies were fully adopted by the majority of the smallholder farmers. In addition, our results also showed that there was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.001**, p<0.05) between agricultural technologies training sessions and adoption of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The results reported that the use of participatory agricultural technologies training and trust in the lead farmers influenced farmers’ decisions to adopt and implement the recommended good agricultural practices technologies. The study recommends a policy agenda of Government that will favor improvement of agricultural extension and training for rural development to promote agricultural productivity, improving standard of living of smallholder farmers and national food security
Social Factors Affecting Adoption of Zero-grazing Dairy Farming Technology among Smallholder Farmers in Bondo SubCounty, Kenya (Published)
Adoption of zero-grazing technology in Bondo Sub-County has remained low at 4-8 percent despite its introduction in the area in 1990s. No in-depth analysis has ever been conducted in Bondo Sub-County on the factors responsible for low adoption of this technology. Knowledge gaps exist on practices of successful zero-grazing dairy farming that if addressed may result to an increase in milk production. The purpose of this study was to analyze social factors influencing adoption and performance of zero-grazing dairy farming among smallholder farmers. A study was conducted on a sampled population of 279 from a target population of 4253 smallholder farmers. This consisted of adopters and non-adopters of the technology. Sampling techniques were used to select households. The results showed that age, gender and farm experience significantly influenced adoption of dairy farming technology. The study concluded that age, gender and farm experience influence adoption of technology in the area.
Factors Influencing Radio Adoption Decision of Rice Farmers in the Dissemination of Agricultural Information in Zamfara State (Published)
This study examine the factors influencing radio adoption decision of rice farmers in the dissemination of agricultural information in Zamfara state. The research study applied agenda setting theory to show how selection of topics and packaging of agricultural content impact on rice farmer’s uptake of agricultural information. The research use a structured questionnaire to collect data for the study. A multi-stage, simple random and purposive sampling techniques were adopted to select a sample of 350 farm respondents. The data collected were analyzed using a descriptive statistics such frequency and percentage and logit regression analysis to estimate factors influencing radio adoption decision in knowledge sharing. The estimate shows that, age, farming experience, access to agricultural information via radio, association membership and gender are significant at 5%, 1% and 10% respectively. It is therefore recommended that, more radio stations should be develop and should also partner with agriculture institutions to overcome challenges that both side experience
International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Adoption and Revenue Generation: A Descriptive Study of Nigeria and Ghana (Published)
Years after the inception of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), most countries of the world now permit its utilization in their countries including West Africa countries such as Nigeria and Ghana. However, some countries of the world still have not subscribed to the IFRS situation. It is thus necessary to examine the situation of things with the countries that have adopted to know if the adoption has contributed to their growth favourably or adversely. This study adopted expost facto research design to examine how IFRS has influence Revenue base of the selected countries (Nigeria and Ghana). The study concludes that it is in the best interest of developing countries to adopt IFRS. The IFRS ship is already making its way around the world as a single set of high quality global accounting standards and also facilitating revenue flow into the country. Therefore, the earlier other countries come on board, the better for them.
Assessment of Technology Adoption in Maize Production by Small Scale Farmers: Case of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme, Baringo County, Kenya (Published)
Maize is one stable food grownall over Kenya including Perkerra Irrigation Scheme. However, over the years, its production has been on decline due to many challenges including; decrease in land as result of increase in population, loss of soil fertility, use outdated technologies which in return would sustain or increase production. Despite the availability of these technologies, small scale farmers in Perkerra irrigation scheme had not yet adopted them. The purpose of study was to determine the influence of the extension services, access and utilization of available information on modern techniques and social economic factors hindering the adoption. The study targeted 798 farmers from Loropil, Ng’oswe,Ng’ambo and Labos. Multi stage sampling was applied to draw a total of 100 participants. Data was collected by the use of questionnaires which applied both closed and open ended questions. Data was analyzed by the use of Multiple Linear Regression method so as to get the coefficients of the independent variables and the importance on the adoption of technology. Spearman’s method was also used to determine the correlation coefficient. The results showed that 53% and 43 % of the respondents were males and females respectively. 47% whose education level was 57% attained primary level. Social economic factors were significant in determining the level of technology adoption at 95% level of significance and it had a p-value of 0.03 and hence statistically important. Most farmers (58%) received extension services from the Kenya Seed Company. Radio and public assembly (Baraza) was the main source of information. Based on these findings, both the county and national government should employ more extension officers and ensure subsidization of the basic farm inputs like seeds and fertilizers.
Assessment of Sources of Agricultural Information on Adoption of Maize Production Technologies in Ardo-Kola local Government Area, Taraba state, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the sources of agricultural information on adoption of maize production technologies in Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select respondents for the study. In the first stage, Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) block in the local government area is known as Iware block were considered for the study. Stage two, all the cell in the extension block were considered for the study. Stage three, it involve systematic sampling of twenty (20) respondents from each of the eight (8) cells were selected by taking respondents randomly. In all, a total of one hundred and sixty respondents as mummarized and 150 filled questionnaires were returned. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used to analyse the information collected from the area. The result showed that many (67.33%) of the sampled farmers sourced their information from extension agents. The result of the socio-economic characteristics of maize framers revealed that 39.30% of the respondents falls within 36 – 50 years of age, most of them are on active and productive. Regression result shows that the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.89, implying that (89%) of the variations in sources of Agricultural Information in the adoption of maize technologies were explained by the variables in the model. The result revealed that eight out of the twelve variables estimated positive and economic, economentive and statistically significant at 5 level. The study recommends that provision of information resources center in the rural area is of paramount important in order to facilitate easy access to agricultural information among farmers in the study area.
Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Nigeria: A Conceptual Appraisal (Published)
A recent reality of globalization is the harmonization of accounting standards. Accounting is said to be the language of business; if this assertion holds true, then the move by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to harmonise accounting standards used in the preparation of financial statements across the world is a move in the right direction. This study examined the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria with particular emphasis on the prospects and challenges of IFRS adoption in Nigeria. The major objective of the study was to identify the benefits and challenges of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria. The descriptive research design was used in the investigation that led to the production of this paper. Data were initially collected through review of existing literature and thereafter through questionnaire administration and personal interviews. Tables and percentages were used in summarizing data obtained. Based on the results of the study, it was found that adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria will help Nigeria and Nigerian corporations, among other benefits, secure access to global capital markets. Thus, the study concluded that Nigeria will benefit to a significant extent from the adoption of IFRS. One of the recommendations made was that Government at all levels, financial regulatory agencies, professional accountancy bodies, private and public companies and institutions, and accountancy firms should fast-track IFRS education in order to boost the acquisition of IFRS knowledge and competences.
At a time when the Family Code was still at the stage of the project, the adoption of the Law on Reproductive Health created difficulties as this law did not foresee anything about the procedures to be followed by the ordering parents to legally register the child as a child theirs. To fill this legal vacuum in the Family Code was expressly provided, in Article 261, that for surrogative adoption, provided for in Law no. 8876, dated 04.04.2002 “On Reproductive Health”, the same criteria and procedures as provided in this Code and relevant legislation apply. In this regard some problems arise depending on use of surrogative technique. In this scientific paper I will give my contribution in this field to better understand this new area of family law that is being developing every year in Albania.
Comparative Analysis of System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study compared the System of Rice Intensification and Traditional System of Rice Production in Abi L.G.A, Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives included the description of socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers in Abi L.G.A, determination of the rate and levels of adoption of SRI, etc. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Two-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 100 respondents. Descriptive statistics, t-test and Likert scale were employed for analysis. The major findings of the study shows that, majority (78%) were males and 88% of respondents has rice farm sizes ranging from 1-5ha. The rate of adoption was 50% with 4 levels of adoption of the principles of SRI. The t-test analysis revealed t-calculated value of 8.40 greater than t-tabulated. Meaning that adoption of SRI enhanced the income of the adopters. It is recommended that participation of rice farmers during SRI demonstration be encourage.
Influence of Organizational Arrangement and System Complexity on Adoption of Integrated Financial Management Information System by Uasin Gishu County Government, Kenya (Published)
Over the past decade, developing many countries has increasingly embarked on efforts to computerize their government operations, beginning especially with the public financial management (PFM). Among the most common systems implemented is the integrated financial management information system (IFMIS). The system computerizes and automates key aspects of budget execution and accounting operations across institutions of government. The study investigated factors affecting the implementation of IFMIS in Uasin Gishu County Government. Based on the study, this paper explores the effect of organizational arrangement and system complexity on successful implementation of IFMIS in Uasin Gishu County. The study employed a correlation research design. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 170 respondents from a target population of 566 County’s employees who used IFMIS. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire and was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study revealed that organization arrangement (β=.51, P-.000) had a significant effect on implementation of IFMIS in Uasin Gishu County. However, system complexity (β=.01, P-.000) had no significance effect on implementation of IFMIS. Therefore, the study recommended that the Uasin Gishu County government should embrace change of management since it enhances many positive benefits to an employee’s life, including a better greater job satisfaction, more autonomy, increased energy, creativity, motivation and morale. As work becomes more sophisticated and more technology-dependent, the importance of virtual teams will increase rapidly.