Tag Archives: Acute Toxicity

Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of the Leaf and Stem Bark of Vitex Doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) (Published)

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaves and stem bark of Vitex doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) in vitro on clinical isolates of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Fresh dried leaves and stem bark of Vitex doniana were extracted by cold maceration which yielded a mucilaginous methanol extract. Fractionation of the crude extract was done with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water in that order. Phytochemical analysis and lethality tests (LD50) were carried out using standard procedures. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides. Lethality was not observed in the mice even at 5000 mg/kg. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity as well as a broad spectrum activity. This study therefore supports claims by traditional health practitioners.   

Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Antimicrobial, Bacteriostatic, Phytochemical, Vitex Doniana

EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND HYPOGLYCEMIC, HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECTS AND ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE LEAF OF TAPINANTHUS BANGWENSIS IN EXPERIMENTAL WISTAR RATS. (Published)

African mistletoe is an obligate parasitic medicinal plant found growing on evergreen deciduous plant. Tapinanthus bangwensis is a medicinal plant with wide- range spectrum of pharmacological potentials. Scientific investigations of the plant showed that it has anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-infertility, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant properties etc. Within the scope of this scientific investigation of the aqueous extract of the leaf of Tapinanthus bangwensis, it could be deduced that the plant possesses both hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic properties and also has toxic tolerance. Phytochemical investigation of aqueous leaf extract of Tapinanthus bangwensis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, protein, carbohydrate, glycosides, cyanogenic glycoside, cardiac glycoside and steroid aglycon except reducing sugar that was absent. The percentage reduction in the level of systemic glucose compared to the control group was found to be 70%. Cholesterol level also reduced significantly by 39% compared with the control. Acute toxicity concentration was found to be 1833mg/kg. Statistical analysis showed significant difference at p= 0.05

Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Diabete mellitus, Phytochemical constituents, Reactive oxygen species, Tapinanthus bangwensis

ACUTE TOXIC EFFECT OF QUA IBOE LIGHT CRUDE OIL ON THE GILLS OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS JUVENILES (Published)

The effect of the water soluble fraction of Qua Iboe Light crude oil on the survival of the Juveniles of African freshwater catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was investigated under laboratory conditions for 96 hours. A total of ten (10) juveniles of C. gariepinus each were grouped into twelve (12) test aquaria and held for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in six (6) different concentrations of Qua Iboe Light Crude oil (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg/l) . The experiment were conducted in two batches (A and B). No mortality was recorded in the 0-20mg/l of toxicant, 40% mortality was recorded in the 30mg/l of toxicant giving 60% survival at the end of the 96 hours of test. In the 40mg/l of toxicant 90% mortality was recorded, giving 10% of the organism surviving at the end of the 96 hours test, while in the 50mg/l of toxicant, 100% mortality was recorded leaving 0% survivor at the end of the 96 hours bioassay. The 96 hours LC50 for both batches was 30.12mg/l. Toxicant exposure induced behavioural changes such as abnormal and uncoordinated swimming movement. It was observed that mortality was concentration – dependent: the higher the concentration, the higher the mortality. There was no significant differences in mortalities between the two batches (P>0.05) leading to the conclusion that the WSF of Qua Iboe Light Crude oil in the Nigerian coastal waters may have adverse effects on aquatic fauna and flora. However, it was observed that the WSF of Qua Iboe Light Crude oil had severe impacts on the gills of the test organisms resulting in gill lamellae disintegration and erosion which may be attributed to the cause of the mortality in the test organisms

Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Clarias Gariepinus, Gills, Juveniles, Qua Iboe Light Crude Oil

Acute Toxic Effect of Qua Iboe Light Crude Oil on The Gills of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles (Review Completed - Accepted)

The effect of the water soluble fraction of Qua Iboe Light crude oil on the survival of the Juveniles of African freshwater catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was investigated under laboratory conditions for 96 hours. A total of ten (10) juveniles of C. gariepinus each were grouped into twelve (12) test aquaria and held for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in six (6) different concentrations of Qua Iboe Light Crude oil (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg/l) . The experiment were conducted in two batches (A and B).. No mortality was recorded in the 0-20mg/l of toxicant, 40% mortality was recorded in the 30mg/l of toxicant giving 60% survival at the end of the 96 hours of test. In the 40mg/l of toxicant 90% mortality was recorded, giving 10% of the organism surviving at the end of the 96 hours test, while in the 50mg/l of toxicant, 100% mortality was recorded leaving 0% survivor at the end of the 96 hours bioassay. The 96 hours LC50 for both batches was 30.12mg/l. Toxicant exposure induced behavioural changes such as abnormal and uncoordinated swimming movement. It was observed that mortality was concentration – dependent: the higher the concentration, the higher the mortality. There was no significant differences in mortalities between the two batches (P>0.05) leading to the conclusion that the WSF of Qua Iboe Light Crude oil in the Nigerian coastal waters may have adverse effects on aquatic fauna and flora. However, it was observed that the WSF of Qua Iboe Light Crude oil had severe impacts on the gills of the test organisms resulting in gill lamellae disintegration and erosion which may be attributed to the cause of the mortality in the test organisms

Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Clarias Gariepinus, Gills, Juveniles, Qua Iboe Light Crude Oil