Desmodium velutinum (family Papilionaceae) is used in Nigeria and Lokoja in particular for the treatment of abdominal pain among others. The LD50 was evaluated along with analgesic properties. The analgesic effects of the methanol extract of D. velutinum were investigated at three dose levels (100, 200, 300) mg/kg on the experimental models of pain in mice. The result of LD50 was greater than 3000mg/kg showing D. velutinum extract is relatively safe for human consumption. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated using the hot-plate and abdominal constriction tests. The extracts produced significant (P<0.05) inhibition of thermal nociception induced by hot plate. On chemical nociception induced by intra-peritoneal acetic acid, the extracts significantly (P<0.05) decreased the number of writhing episodes and the time spent before jumping off the hot-plate in a dose independent manner. These results suggest that the extract of D.velutinum may act by inhibiting the mediators of pain. These findings may justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine in the management of pain and related diseases in Nigeria.
A Study on the Diel Activity of Myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) In Natural and Anthropogenically Influenced Habitats (Published)
The present paper provides the results of a study on the diel activity of millipedes and centipedes from two different in terms of anthropogenic impact sites located in northeastern Bulgaria. The presumed differences in the diel activity of myriapods were tested using various statistical methods: the criterion of Kolmogorov, 2 criterion of uniformity, Pearson’s normalized correlation coefficients, and the multivariate regression analysis. . The results show that the diel surface activity of the established species depends on the degree of illumination (number of hours in a day), the air and the soil temperature. However, the activity was not affected by relative humidity, active seasons, and the degree of anthropogenic impact. The diurnal activity conducted in urban and natural habitats confirmed the nocturnal nature of the established species, which are most active in the time interval from 10:00 pm to 4:00 am. This activity is likely to have endogenous nature and it is controlled by internal physiological factors, but its duration may vary according to the changes in the environmental conditions.