Examination of Acquisition and Utilization of Credits by Maize Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the acquisition and utilization of credits by maize farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. A simple random selection technique, on the whole, 210 respondents were selected and utilized for the study. The results indicate that male and female farmers were all actively involved in the production of maize in the study area, with male and female farmers accounting for 58.1% and 41.9 % respectively. It was further observed that that all the maize farmers practiced one type of cropping system or the other, with the respondents distributed as follows; sole cropping (33.3%), mixed cropping (62.9 %) and other cropping systems (3.8%). Majority of farmers engaged in mixed cropping because it reduces risk of revenue loss in the event of crop failure. Different varieties of maize were grown by the farmers, with 44.8% planting local varieties, 47.1% improved variety and only 8.1% mixed variety. The study found that only 43.81% of all respondents had access to credits associations mostly from Isusu/Esusu. In term of total volume of credit sourced, cooperative societies ranked highest contributions. On the determinants of farmers’ decision to access and utilize production credit, five of the eight parameters included in the model were significant, these being age, farm size, farming experience, membership of farmers association and distance to nearest credit center. The percentage loan repayment rate was a mean of 80%. The t – test statistics revealed that maize farmers that utilized credit produced significantly higher output per hectare (1.740 tonnes/ha) (p < 0.01) than farmers that had no access to credit (0.914 tonnes/ha). The findings also indicate that the farmer encountered number of problems, with the major constraint being high cost of production (55.2%). The main costs of production that really contributed to this high costs were labour, fertilizers and transportation. Next in weight of the constraints was non availability of improved maize seed (23.8%). It was recommended that formal credit outlets should be established within close distance to farmers, to encourage credit and acquisition utilization and time repayment.
The Influencing Factors of Language Development: Learners Developing Second and Foreign Languages (Published)
The aim and objective of this research is to find out the language learners’ factors, language learning factors, their influence on the whole process of language learning and finally to look for some possible solutions. It is worth mentioning that a particular factor can be a barrier to one learner, whereas it may facilitate the other. There is no denying the fact that developing a new language, for example a second/foreign language, is basically a complex and tiring job. According to Stephen D. Krashen, we have two widely known and well accepted means to develop language: ‘acquisition’ and ‘learning’. Acquiring a language is a natural process, while learning a language is a training based activity. During the period of language development, students have a lot of issues such as: personal, social, biological, political, cultural, economic, academic and so on. Further researches show that after puberty, learners face some issues and there are facts that all individuals are different from one another. In the early 1960’s, there was an upsurge of interest in individual characteristics. All these issues that affect language learning can broadly be categorized as internal and external factors. To facilitate language learning, students’ initial errors in developing language should be allowed and corrected with a sympathy and tact. So, to discover a short-cut solution to removing and/or minimizing all the factors of language learners and language learning in order to develop the target language is not an effortless task.
Influence of Libraries in Building a Virile Reading Nation: Challenges and Strategies in Starting Early (Published)
That the nation Nigeria is continually being described as a nation with poor reading culture with declining standard of education is a painful fact we have lived with for years. To reverse this trend and develop virile reading culture in the country, the paper examined the role and influence of the libraries as institutions with the mandate to support teaching, learning and doing research through the instrumentality of language and reading. The paper also examined the roles the stakeholders could play individually and collectively as a viable strategy in developing enduring reading culture in Nigeria through systemic thinking as theoretical construct. With the centrality of libraries the various influences of such stakeholders as governments, parents, teachers, booksellers, publishers, authors, and non-governmental organizations could easily be coordinated for positive and desired effect. The paper recommends adequate funding of libraries being the central player that is saddled with the responsibility of driving the acquisition of reading skills among citizenry of the nation.
Developmental Stages Of the Production of Passive Voice by Children Native Speakers of Jordanian Arabic (Published)
This study aims at investigating the children’s production of passive voice in Jordanian Arabic. It sheds light on the factors that may influence the children’s production of some passive forms in Jordanian Arabic. The sample of the study consists of thirty Jordanian children who belong to five age groups from 3; 0 – 7;11 years old. Each of these groups includes six children with equal number of males and females chosen randomly from an elementary school in Jordan. A production test was given to the children using six pairs of pictures that illustrate the contrast between the active and passive sentences. The findings indicate the nature of the construction of passive in Jordanian Arabic does not have that complexity which may pose difficulties for the Jordanian children in their production of passive voice. The increase in age is accompanied by improvement in the child’s linguistic abilities necessary for the production of passive voice.
Business Consolidation and Its Impact on Financial Performance: Evidence from the Ghanaian Banking Industry (Published)
The study provides empirical examination on the impact of business consolidation or mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the financial performance of banks in Ghana. Both descriptive and correlational research designs were employed for the study. Two banks: Ecobank Ghana Ltd and Access Bank Ghana Ltd were chosen for the study. The annual reports of the banks from pre-merger period (2009 to 2011) and post-merger period (2012 to 2015) were used for the analysis. Two analysis techniques: ratio and regression analysis were used to examine the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the profitability of these firms. Net profit margin (NPM) and return on capital employed (ROCE) were used as proxies for financial performance and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model was used to estimate the level of impact of M&A on the performance of the banks. The study revealed that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) resulted to more than 80% growth in income and the net assets immediately after acquisition. The growth in profitability continued in subsequent years, however at a decreasing rates. With regards to net profit margin and return on capital employed (ROCE), the banks observed a marginal decline after three years of acquisition. The study further found empirical evidence to support the view that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) has a positive and significant impact on both NPM and ROCE. Accordingly, it is concluded that mergers and acquisitions (M&A) has a positive and significant impact on financial performance of banks.
The Advent of Islam has launched the Greatest Arabic Language Planning Process Ever-made in History for a Language (Published)
This descriptive and analytical research conducted to investigate the relationship between the advent and spread of Islam and its reflections on the development and growth of the Arabic language from one side, and link that with the contemporary principle, concepts and theories of language planning from the other side. The coming and spread of Islam has made major procedures that have enhanced the status, corpus and acquisition of Arabic. They include selection, standardization and codification of the Arabic language as the official language for the Muslim community and state. The advent of Islam has made great linguistic changes to the Arabic language components including its phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. These procedures have changed the Arabic status from a language of local tribes to an international language spoken by about 450 millions in the world; it has also become the native and official language for 22 countries and the liturgical language for about 1.7 billion Muslims. Learning and disseminating Arabic is enhancing, booming and increasing worldwide.
Current Issues and Challenges in the Acquisition of Office Technology and Management Skills (Published)
It is a well-established fact that advances in technology has affected different professions with a view to meet global trends in higher productivity, speed, networking and excellent packaging. Accomplishing the routine tasks with machines is known as automation. Hence this paper accesses how secretaries have used as a panacea to accelerate their success in the workplace. Their basic activities affected includes: reprography, word processing, organization of meetings amongst others. The paper revealed certain products of automation like: printing, book keeping, payroll, forms management. It also highlighted major challenges of lack of funds, insecurity as having bedeviled office automation. Recommendations made included that secretaries and office technology managers should constantly be retrained to sharpen their equipment handling capacity. It was therefore concluded that it was inevitable for business concerns to continue these changes to enable their secretaries reshape their products to meet global standards.
Business combination through mergers and acquisitions has become a global phenomenon to achieve economies of scale and higher productivity. The need for financial institutions to merge becomes even more imperative in the face of the onslaught of greater competition arising from globalization. This study evaluated the impact of mergers and acquisitions which started in 2005 on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria using a sample of ten (10) banks. This research made use of secondary data, obtained from the bank’s annual reports and statements of accounts covering a period of 2001-2010, Using nine (9) variables; Return on Assets, Return on Equity, Net Profit Margin, Asset Utilisation, Equity Multiplier, Earnings per share, Debt Equity ratio, Debt Asset ratio & Leverage ratio, the study evaluated the performance of the banks before and after mergers and acquisitions using pair sample t-test. The results showed that there is significant difference in the performances of Deposit Money Banks in the pre and post-merger periods using the ROA, ROE and LR as yards tick but shows no significant impacts in the performances of Deposit Money Bank using other variables as yard stick. The study hereby recommends that the CBN should set and enforce corporate governance standards for commercial banks and also enforce risk based supervision in banks.
AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF PRE AND POST MERGER OR ACQUISITION IMPACT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN TELECOMMUNICATION LIMITED (Published)
The research of this study is to define the objectivity of merger and acquisition impact in pre and post scenario of the event. The study has played with two parts, the first part of the study implement regression model with the help of accounting ratios of profitability and long term financial position ratios with score of bankruptcy. The second part of the study just analyzes the pre and post financial ratios and its trend over the period of time. The time period taken for the selected company PTCL is from 2003 to 2009, which covers the event. The results of first part of the study has shown that profitability and long term financial position of the company is producing a strong positive impact on the firm score of bankruptcy. The second part of financial ratio has seen that after acquisition the profitability of has declined significantly and it has affected the score of the bankruptcy i.e. Z-Score. The overall long term financial position is neither improved nor declined. It has shown a constant trend over the period of time in which the data is taken. It has been conclude that performance of PTCL has not improved over the period of time
Mergers and Acquisition has been described as a viable too for capital increase in businesses. The Nigerian business environment is not distant from this opinion as several mergers have been successfully conducted to date. Specifically, the banking scene had witnessed many prior to the last recapitalization exercise. This paper investigates the relationship between increasing share capital of banks through merger and acquisition and liquidity and profitability. The study conducts empirical investigation into the merger of Intercontinental Merchant Bank Limited and Equity Bank Limited. The analysis is divided into pre and post merger periods to specifically capture the impacts created by the action. The study observes that liquidity is not significant in the relationship while profitability is very good in explaining the relationship. The paper concludes that profitability of banks is enhanced with capital increase, though not necessarily the liquidity level.
Post Merger And Acquisition And Performance Of Deposit Money Banks In Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)
Mergers and acquisitions as a phenomenon is implemented to strengthen the banking system, embrace globalization, improve healthy competition, exploit economies of scale, adopt advanced technologies, raise efficiency and improve profitability. The world globalization has led to world financial crisis which has significantly affected the banking industry and has consequently increased the need for mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the consolidation of deposit money banks. One of the major policies introduced to solve these financial problems is by consolidation through mergers and acquisitions. This study explored the impact of post mergers and acquisitions on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design with a total population of 22 deposit money banks in Nigeria. A sample of 10 banks was randomly selected from the above population. The study used the secondary sources to extract data from the Annual Reports of the selected banks for a period of five (5) years (2008-2012). Simple regression analysis technique was used for data analyses. The study revealed that as at the end of year 2012, the average capital base of the sampled banks in the post Merger period showed a total of (N 1.76 Trillion). This is an improvement from the recent work of Oghojafor (2012) in which average capital base stood at (N 6,358.76 Million). The study revealed an insignificant but positive relationship between post mergers and acquisitions capital base (PMACB) and dividend per share (DPS) with (P=0.985 i.e. P>0.05), earnings per share (EPS) with (P=0.803 i.e. P>0.05), return on assets (ROA) with (P=0.859 i.e. P>0.05) and return on capital employed with (P=0.666 i.e. P>0.05). This study concluded that post merger and acquisition has no significant effect on dividend per share of shareholders, their earnings per share, return on assets and return on capital employed. In a broad perspective, this study further revealed that there is a reduction in the degree of global banking crisis over the years and thus reduction in the general banking failure particularly in Nigeria. This is made possible through mergers and acquisition process which consecutively resulted in increased capital base of banking industry in Nigeria. The study recommended that equal considerations should be given to both micro and macro prudential guidelines, in order to ensure sound and stable banking system. Also, deposit money banks should incorporate into their banking policy other factors such as credit discipline, corporate culture, and management information system so as to ensure increase in their earnings ability.
Status of Technical Education Curriculum Programme for Skill Acquisition in a Dynamic Society (Published)
The paper was designed to look at the present status of technical education curriculum programme for skill acquisition in a dynamic society. The paper examined technical education curriculum programme and the different national developmental strategies and the same time touched the current implementation and talked about evaluation for technical education programme that necessitate a change in a dynamic society. One of the components examined concerning this paper is the teacher that is responsible for the implementation of the policy and technical education curriculum. Other key elements discussed are the tools, equipment and facilities that are the major keys and elements of skill acquisition. In view of the prevailing circumstances and status, it was suggested that government should make fund available to train and retrain Nigerian’s for ever changing and dynamic society among others