Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in Orogodo River Delta State and Their Potential Health Effects (Published)
This study was carried out to analyse the presence of different phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalates (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), buttylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) in Orogodo River. Samples were collected from eight points along the river channel, extracted using liquid-liquid method of extraction and was analysed using GC/MS. Levels of phthalates in water samples from the river ranged from 0.00µg/L to 2.22µg/L. The highest concentrations of phthalates were DBP and DEHP, which is consistent with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals. It was found that the individual phthalates concentration was low but total phthalate levels were high in most stations. Total phthalates for each of the location ranges from 1.34µg/L to 3.29µg/L at each station. Some of these were higher than the criterion of 3µg/L phthalates recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the protection of fish and other aquatic organisms. The high concentrations may be as a result of dumping of untreated effluent/solid waste and emissions arising from burning of refuse containing plastic materials along the stretch of the river. The results for phthalates in the water samples give cause for environmental and health concern for people living downstream of the river. These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs for pollution studies of the river.