Tag Archives: Achievements

Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Regional Integration in East Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects (Published)

This study focuses on the activities of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in promoting regional integration among member countries since its transformation from Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to IGAD in the 1990s. The data for the study are derived from the secondary sources such as textbooks, articles journals, theses, and other relevant documents both offline and online. The theory of liberal intergovernmentalism is adopted for the purpose of analysis. From the findings, the paper notes that so far, the organization has been able to achieve some objectives, including the establishment of IGAD Climate Prediction Application Centre (ICPAC) which relays reports on climate change to member states every 10 days; establishment of IGAD Women’s Desk in 1994 to Foster gender mainstreaming and promote Women’s participation in IGAD Programmes; mediation etcetera. However, the organization is yet to achieve economic union it proposed in 2009. There are also challenges of incessant conflicts/wars among member states. Equally, the issues of harsh weather conditions-drought and desertification- of the region as well as multiplicity of regional organizations with overlapping membership and functions have equally affected the process of integration among IGAD’s member states. Finally, the study makes some recommendations among which are as follows: Member states should focus more on development programmes that will boost the economy of the region so that the goal of integration can be attained; Member countries should avoid joining several organizations with huge cost implications and concentrate on the ones that can help them achieve regional integration among them; The mediation arm of the organization should be strengthened with proper funding while members should remain neutral during mediation to enable the organization meets it goal of peace in the region, Etcetera.

 

Keywords: Achievements, Challenges, Development Regional Integration, Intergovernmental Authority

The United Nations/African Union Intervention in the Darfur Conflict (2007-2010): Achievements, Challenges and Lessons for the Future (Published)

The paper examined the activities of the African Union (AU) and the United Nations aimed at resolving conflict and maintaining peace and security especially in Darfur, the secondary method of data collection and analysis was adopted. The study made use of conflict theory as the framework of analysis. The findings of the research revealed: that the conflict in Darfur was caused by the colonial heritage, ethnic rivalry, religious intolerance and ecological challenges; that AU and UN have contributed significantly in the peace process in Darfur in the areas of protection of lives and properties, provision of humanitarian assistance, provision of enabling environment for negotiation, among others. Nonetheless, these were not without challenges ranging from logistics, ecological, corruption. The following recommendations were arrived at: proper training for the AU / UN officials on peace keeping; cooperation of all the parties, especially the Sudanese government and AU /UN member states towards conflict resolution; and demonstration of political will by the international community.

Keywords: Achievements, African Union, Challenges, Darfur Conflict, Intervention, Lessons for the Future, United Nations

GOVERNMENTAL DECENTRALIZATION IN THE ALBANIAN LEGAL AND FISCAL DIMENSION CASE STUDY (ELBASAN MUNICIPALITY) (Published)

The administrative and executive activity of the state is so vast and multilateral, that it cannot be carried out or borne by just the central public administration bodies. Therefore in addition to state bodies of the central government as part of the public administration bodies a number of local administration bodies are set up and they represent the links of the Albanian Republic administrative device. The local government is a very important topic among citizens and this because we are directly or indirectly affected by it. This not only because we pay the local taxes that fill the offers of the local government, but also through the services that we as users and consumers receive from it. The development of local units promotes the development of natural resources and the will of sharp minds to do something new and better. Albania has already been introduced to the path of the European integration reforms, which are dictating essential structural and social-economical changes, where among other things there is also included the decentralization and local autonomy. As regarding to decentralization, it has emerged as a need to delegate responsibilities from central to local level and its aim is to improve governance. Having these responsibilities and powers in most of the cases has helped increasing the power efficiency, the level of democracy, the distribution of responsibilities and bringing the decision-making closer to people. However the decentralization process has mostly helped to increase the quantity and quality of services offered to citizens and in this way responding in a better way to their needs and interests. To talk about the local government decentralization, means to treat a much discussed problem, which remains evasive in some aspects, and sometimes difficult to understand. For this reason, in this article we will be briefly introducing the meaning of decentralization in the Albanian dimension. We will also concentrate on the achievements in the legal and fiscal aspects as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

Keywords: Achievements, Decentralization, Fiscal process, Legal process

Governmental decentralization in the Albanian legal and fiscal dimension Case study (Elbasan Municipality) (Review Completed - Accepted)

The administrative and executive activity of the state is so vast and multilateral, that it cannot be carried out or borne by just the central public administration bodies. Therefore in addition to state bodies of the central government as part of the public administration bodies a number of local administration bodies are set up and they represent the links of the Albanian Republic administrative device. The local government is a very important topic among citizens and this because we are directly or indirectly affected by it. This not only because we pay the local taxes that fill the offers of the local government, but also through the services that we as users and consumers receive from it. The development of local units promotes the development of natural resources and the will of sharp minds to do something new and better. Albania has already been introduced to the path of the European integration reforms, which are dictating essential structural and social-economical changes, where among other things there is also included the decentralization and local autonomy.

As regarding to decentralization, it has emerged as a need to delegate responsibilities from central to local level and its aim is to improve governance. Having these responsibilities and powers in most of the cases has helped increasing the power efficiency, the level of democracy, the distribution of responsibilities and bringing the decision-making closer to people. However the decentralization process has mostly helped to increase the quantity and quality of services offered to citizens and in this way responding in a better way to their needs and interests.

To talk about the local government decentralization, means to treat a much discussed problem, which remains evasive in some aspects, and sometimes difficult to understand. For this reason, in this article we will be briefly introducing the meaning of decentralization in the Albanian dimension. We will also concentrate on the achievements in the legal and fiscal aspects as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this process.

 

Keywords: Achievements, Decentralization, Fiscal process, Legal process