The Complexities of Alienation, Otherness, and Marginalization in Miral Al-Tahawy’s Novel Brooklyn Heights (Published)
This paper is an attempt to bind the reader to the complexities of otherness and marginalization as trauma experienced by the protagonist and other immigrants in the America depicted in Brooklyn Heights[i]. In all of their complexities and nuances that this paper seeks to explore and discuss these concepts, otherness, alienation, and marginalization, in light of Homi Bhahba’s concept of otherness and Daphne Grace’s theorization on the geographical senses of ‘belonging’ or ‘dislocation’. As such, since Al-Tahawy’s narrative focuses on spaces of otherness and marginalization, this paper aims to reveal how the novelist tends towards the deeply personal, and creates interesting transnational connections through a wide cast of multi-racial immigrants and refugees. The paper further exposes how Al-Tahawy, through her compelling and masterful style, captures the confusions and conflicts of marginalized immigrants and how otherness and marginalization, as experiences of social and psychological disjunction, lead to cultural alienation in America; how attempts at assimilation in a new host country even further highlight the sense of loss and alienation, especially if the immigration from the original home country takes as a result of a traumatic event; and whether or not assimilation necessarily nullifies one’s ethnicity or means total disappearance or “dissolving” into the mainstream.
Citation: Farouq Rezq Bekhit Sayyid (2022) The Complexities of Alienation, Otherness, and Marginalization in Miral Al-Tahawy’s Novel Brooklyn Heights, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.3, pp.1-15
Linguistic Repertoire of Undergraduates in Ekiti State Tertiary Institutions: Codeswitching and Its Implications (Published)
This study deals with the linguistic repertoire of undergraduates in Ekiti State tertiary institutions. This study also takes a specific interest in examining the linguistic status of the undergraduates in terms of monolingualism, bilingualism and multilingualism. The descriptive design was used for the study. The population for the study were undergraduates’ students from three tertiary institutions in Ekiti State; College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, University of Nsukka, Ikere campus and Crown Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti. The data was collected by administering a structured questionnaire on the selected sample. 180 questionnaires were administered, while 153 questionnaires were returned by the respondent. Five research questions were raised and analysed with SPSS 20. Results of the study revealed that the extent of undergraduates being multilingual was insignificant; about 98% undergraduates were bilingual while a significant number of the undergraduates were not multilingual. Hence, about 1% speak more than two languages, including English as a second language. Furthermore, the extent of code switching and code mixing among the bilingual undergraduates was significant at .038 level of significance. Also, undergraduates tend to code switch from the L1 to the L2 during communication at home as shown by the level of significance being 0.05. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made which included, proper implementation of the Language Policy on Education at all levels of education, the administrative resurrection of acculturation programmes in tertiary institutions with emphasis on undergraduates studying Language Education and governments’ intervention in the increase of admission quota of applicants intending studying Nigerian Languages in Nigerian Universities and Colleges of Education.
The Influence of Mastery Orientation among African Undergraduate Students in the USA on Achievement of Possible Selves: An Analysis of Demographic Factors (Published)
Students’ focus being in control of tasks within their environment enables the desire to acquiring new knowledge an aspect that is key to academic performance. Mastery oriented students are usually in control and tend to be more satisfied with their work than those who are influenced by other external performance indicators like marks or scores. They will therefore get involved in mainly those activities that will add to their knowledge. This paper, taking this aspect into consideration explains the influence of mastery orientation among African undergraduate students living in the United States on their achievement of possible selves. The study was carried out in institutions of higher learning in the United States. It involved undergraduate students registered in any of the semesters in the Spring semester, 2007 and the year 2006. The study consisted of a conveniently sampled size of 204 students drawn from undergraduate programs in four schools in the Southeast United States. Data collection was done by means of a questionnaire which was later subjected to analysis through descriptive means and multiple regression. The demographic variables identified in the study included age, length of stay, subject majors, school classification, financial support by family and schools. It was concluded that these aspects positively influenced achievement of possible selves as the higher the variable the significant the influence it had on the students.
The Effect of Acculturation through Ethnic Identity on Self- Adaptation of Punjabi Teenagers at the Age of 15-18 Years in Medan City, Indonesia (Published)
This research aims to obtain a model of influence of acculturation of integration, separation and assimilation through the unexamined search and achieved ethnic identity against the self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at age of 15 – 18 years in Medan city. The hypothesis of this research is the influence of acculturation of integration, separation and assimilation through unexamined, search and achieved ethnic identity to the self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at age 15 – 18 years old in Medan city. This research uses quantitative approach in the form of descriptive explanatory with causal relationship design. The research subjects are the 88 Punjabi teenagers at age of 15 – 18 years old in Medan City which are obtained by snowball sampling technique. The data collection instruments are acculturation scale, ethnic identity and self-adaptation. The data of this research are collected by using questionnaires arranged in the form of ordinal scale with Likert scale model. The data have been obtained, analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), which is conducted in two ways, namely testing the measurement model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) analysis technique, and testing of structural model through Partial Least Square (PLS) through the Smart – PLS software program. The result of hypothesis testing shows that the effect of acculturation of integration, separation and assimilation through unexamined, search ethnic identity, and the achievement have an effect on the self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at the age of 15-18 years in Medan city. The effect models of integration acculturation, separation and assimilation through the unexamined, search, and achieved ethnic identity against self-adaptation of Punjabi teenagers at the age of 15-18 year in Medan City proved to have suitability of theoretical model with empirical data.
The Pokot Worldview as an Impediment to the Spread of Christianity among the Pokot People (Published)
Christian missionaries established the first mission work among the Pokot people of West Pokot County in 1931 when the Anglican Bible Churchman’s Missionary Society (BCMS) set up a mission centre at Kacheliba. They, however, encountered a lot of resistance and non- response from the Pokot people. To date, the bulk of the Pokot people are still conservative to their traditional lifestyle and reluctant to open up to change and new ideas. This paper examines the Pokot worldview as a challenge to the spread of Christianity among the Pokot people. In so doing, the author seeks to establish ways through which evangelization could be done to make the Pokot people embrace change in order to utilize development opportunities that come with it. A descriptive design was employed for the study. Purposive, snowball and random sampling methods were used to select the respondents. The study was guided by the structural functionalism theory by David Merton of 1910. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the collected data which was obtained through questionnaires and oral interviews. The study established that the Pokot community is much acculturated and the people are strongly bound together by their tribal customs; majority of whom prefer their traditional lifestyle to modernity.
This article aims to understand the importance for Saudi students of learning about English/American culture in developing learners’ communicative competence. To this end it intends to explore the attitudes of students and parents of students to incorporating English/American culture into the EFL classroom. A quantitative approach was used for the data collection, consisting of a structured-questionnaire presented to 200 student and parent participants. The results of this study show that most students who were surveyed have a strong motivation to learn the English language in order to gain access to the culture of English-speaking countries such as the UK and the USA. Hence, they want to focus on communicative competence rather than linguistic competence in learning English. The majority of student participants who want to learn about the target culture prefer learning this at intermediate school. Also, the results show that some parents treat learning the target culture with suspicion, because of the fear of losing Saudi identity by studying authentic materials. But despite this most parent respondents have positive attitudes to learning English/American culture in the EFL classroom. The originality of this article is including parents in the belief that their participations cannot be ignored because of their influence on their children’s views. This study concludes with some useful references to ways of learning English/American culture in the EFL classroom.
The principal objective of this study is to investigate the impact of consumer culture on advertising decisions in Cameroon. The cultural variables used include: language, religion, individualism/collectivism, beliefs, values, customs, and pride. We collected primary data from the towns of Douala and Yaounde through the use of questionnaire, calculated Cronbach`s alpha for each of our measuring instruments to ensure their reliability. This data is analysed through Chi square analysis test, multiple correspondence analysis, the test of T student, poison regression analysis, and Spearman correlation test. We found out that prominent values influencing advertising decisions are; pride, face to face contact in business negotiation, elastic time concept, long term orientation, and high social tides. Our results showed that consumer culture has a strong impact on advertising in all the regions with the exception of the centre and south regions. It is represented in the products we buy through design. Lastly, local models have a strong positive impact than foreign models, we recommend enterprises advertising in Cameroon to practice ethno advertising, and more so new products should first be advertised in the rest of the regions and gradually to the Centre and south Regions.