Tag Archives: Accessibility

Analysis of Farmers’ Accessibility to Institutional Credit: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme (Published)

The recent call for economic diversification through strengthening and consolidating the agricultural sector becomes imperative for the over dependent on the oil and gas sector. The level of agribusiness activities further reveals access to credit (finance) as serious concern to farmers in order to actualize the diversification agenda. In this light, this study analysed farmers’ accessibility to institutional credit at the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme. For the purpose of primary data collection, a questionnaire was designed and administered to each of the selected farmers in the communities. In addition, in-depth interview (IDI) was conducted with officials of the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme. Out of the 250 copies of the questionnaire administered to the respondents, 196 copies had valid responses and were found useful for the analysis representing a response rate of 78.4 per cent, composed of 79 (40.3%) credit beneficiaries and 117 (59.7%) non-credit beneficiaries. This study employed both descriptive, inferential statistics and logistic regression model in analysing the data that were collected. The study further indicated that the farmers had relatively adequate access to land as the majority (60.8%) of the respondents owned between 1-5 hectares of land, and about 30.2 per cent owned between 6-10 hectares of land while 1.0 per cent of the respondents had more than 10 hectares of land. Farmers with large farm sizes were more inclined to borrow as 42.3 per cent of farmers with large farm size applied for credit as against 7.1 per cent for small-scale farmers. The study also revealed that the credit accessed from the AISIFCS was adequate and majority (80.1%) of the beneficiaries stated that they did not receive the actual amount of loan requested.  Also institutional credits had positive impact on agricultural productivity while age, gender, household size, membership of cooperative, and access to ICT did not significantly contribute to the likelihood of having access to credit from ASIFCS. Marital status, educational qualification, income, size of farm in hectares, distance to nearest bank in km, farming experience in years and access to extension services significantly contributed to the probability of having access to credit from the Akwa State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme (AISIFCS). Therefore, the study showed that the main constraints to local farmer’s capacity in accessing institutional credits include lack of collaterals, high interest rate, high level of bureaucracy, and the mode of repayment among others.

Keywords: Accessibility, Credit Scheme, Farmers, Institutional, Integrated & Agricultural Productivity

HIV/Aids Knowledge and Accessibility to HIV Information among Women in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was to determine HIV/AIDS knowledge and accessibility to HIV information among women in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of 402 women were recruited using multi-stage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was designed to generate data from the respondents. Data collected were entered and analysed using SPSS (version 20.0) and results were presented in tables and charts. Chi-square was used to test for association between variables at 5% level of significance. Findings from this study revealed most study participants (25.6%) were within the age bracket of 35-39 years, (91.8%) Christians, (71.9%) married and (43.3%) had undergone secondary education. Most respondents were civil servants (32.6%), traders/business women (15.7%), farmers (9.7%) and 20.3% were low income earners. Respondents exhibited high knowledge level of HIV/AIDS as the media (39.1%), health workers (18.7%) and HIV/AIDS campaigns (15.0%) were their major sources of information. About 54.5% respondents reported that they currently have access to HIV/AIDS information and other reproductive health services with primary health centers (21.4%) and hospitals as their top source of information centers. Intensifying HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns and improving access to reproductive health services are core strategies in averting HIV morbidity and mortality among women domiciling in semi-urban and remote settings.

Keywords: Accessibility, HIV/AIDS, Knowledge, Obudu LGA, Women


This paper deals on challenges of climate change on provision of and accessibility to quality education in Nigeria. It also looks at the implications for quality education in Nigerian educational system. The study is a survey carried out in the three education zones in Ebonyi State. The population is made up of 2,855 secondary school teachers and simple random sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 300 secondary school teachers. Two research questions guided the study. A structured questionnaire made up of 26 items was used for data collection. Two experts in curriculum studies and one expert in Measurement and Evaluation validated the instrument. To determine the reliability of the instrument, a pilot test was done outside the area of the study. Using Cronbach Alpha method, a reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained. Data collected were analyzed using mean statistics. The findings of the study among others, showed that climate change-related problems adversely affect teaching and learning by causing the following: lateness and absenteeism to school among teachers and students; destruction of school buildings and learning materials, unconducive learning environment, destruction of means of livelihood; incompletion of curriculum content, ineffective instructional supervision, and poor performance in examinations. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made: climate change should be integrated into secondary school curriculum; and seminars, workshops, and conferences should be organized for teachers, students, and school administrators on adaptation and mitigation measures of climate change.

Keywords: Accessibility, Climate Change, Quality Education


Rural transport and infrastructure development in Nigeria have being topical issues and have been identified by many as crucial components for economic development of the country. In light of the above, the paper adopted survey method to gather data while secondary sources of data were also utilised to argument the later. A total of three hundred set of questionnaires were administered in three randomly selected communities in the study area. The analysis of the data revealed an inequality in the provision of road infrastructure and rehabilitation of roads in the area, resulting in disparities in the level of development. The poor condition of roads in the area is having negative effects on agricultural activities which is the major source of income of residents, thereby increasing the poverty rate. The study recommendations integrated rural development strategy, empowerment of the grassroots dwellers by the government to enhance grassroots development. Other recommendations include the establishment of road maintenance unit at the local government level to ensure that existing roads are kept in good condition, encourage private-public participation in rural road development and finally, community efforts should be encouraged through self-help approach

Keywords: Accessibility, Poverty, Rural Area, Self- Help Approach And Development