Barriers of Access to Finance in Nepal (Published)
Access to finance has several meanings, reasons and consequences. Normally, access to finance has two facets, i.e. at household or individual level and business firm level (Beck and Kunt, 2008; World Bank, 2009) to reach in financial institutions to consume financial services. Many policies are formulated and practiced in Nepal to increase access to finance, still the situation is poor. Number of financial intermediaries are increased since the decades, however a larger segment of people are out of financial mainstream. Still, the people do not know about financial services, about service centers and doing business; i.e. financial literacy is poor. From this, a consistent and sustainable access of them to financial services is questionable. Access of people in financial services or access of service providers to people is a ‘double barrel’ question. Similarly, why the poor access among the efforts to increase it since some decades in Nepal is a big question. The paper presents some of the reasons for the poor access of people in financial services. The paper is based on analytical design with some secondary data.
Factors Hampering Uptake of Entrepreneurship among Persons with Impairments in Kenya: A Survey of Entrepreneurs with Impairments in Nairobi County (Review Completed - Accepted)
Bringing persons with impairments (PWIs henceforth) at par with the rest of society is a commitment enshrined in the constitution and efforts are being made by the Government to achieve this endeavor. The most suitable and effective strategy of economically empowering PWIs is encouraging them to become entrepreneurs. Despite entrepreneurship being the most suitable way of including PWIs in National development and self-reliance only a small fraction (one third) of this group of people are undertaking some form of business. This is due to the argument that, Entrepreneurship is not an easy activity especially with PWIs because they face various problems at the time of establishing the business.
The main objective of this study was to identify factors hampering uptake of entrepreneurship among persons with impairments in Kenya. The study population was entrepreneurs with impairments in Nairobi Kenya. The research adopted a descriptive research guided by survey research design. The ideal sampling technique was stratified random sampling with a sample size of 50 respondents. Questionnaire was used for data collection.
The findings shows that Most of PWIs entreprenuers have low level of education with no business training, and that most EWIs source their capital from personal savings followed by family and friends. Lack of acceptable collateral is a major obstacle in accessing credit to impaired entrepreneurs. Further, the study found that most EWIs had accessed mentorship programmes because they considered it important for business start up. Finally the study found that EWIs Have difficulties in accessing transport facilities affecting their mobility which further adversely affects their marketing and networking efforts. The study recommended for stakeholders involvement in all aspects including but not limited to education, access to finance, mobility and mentorship to increase awareness and entrepreneurial culture among PWIs.