Analytical Review of the Current and Future Directions of Management Accounting and Control Systems (Published)
Management accounting and control system practices have changed dramatically throughout the last 200 years. All these changes were in response to rapid technological developments, environmental complexity, changes in organizational structures, managerial style, and many different changes that have emerged throughout the years. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize the relevant literature to identify the current and future directions of management accounting and control systems practices. This was carried out by following an analytical approach, with the intention of reviewing the literature by emphasizing the developments of management accounting and control system practices throughout the twentieth and twenty- first centuries. Consequently, a conceptual framework that portray the current practices of management accounting was developed. As a result, insights for the future directions of this discipline were indicated. The findings of this study showed that the role and scope of management accounting has changed from cost determination, to creation of value to customers. Thus, the different modern techniques that have emerged in response to the needs of contemporary organizations are described. Furthermore, it articulated that today managerial accountants no longer use a historical view of strategy and operations, but look to predict what the market will do in the future. Consequently, it is anticipated that even the role, education, and practices of management accountants will continue to change in the future. Moving from scorekeeping, determining and allocating costs, to developing their predictive, prescriptive analytical skills. Therefore, it is recommended that more emphasis needs to be placed in developing their personal and technical skills, to obtain a better understanding of contemporary management accounting methods for better support of managerial decision- making.
This paper theoretically explored the concept of managerial humor in relation to the dangers and gains it brings into the organization as managers strive to manage the 21st century workforce toward sustainable organizational performance. In the cause of extant literature review, four managerial humorous behavior i.e. affliative, self-enhancement, aggressive and self-defeating were adopted as the most reliable indicators of humor practices in modern business management. Consequently, our findings revealed that managerial humorous behavior at the workplace is a phenomenon characterized by mixed effect. This is to say that each humorous disposition put up by managers leave the organization with a given consequence, which may be positive (gains) or negative (dangers) in nature. The study further discovered that managerial humor such as affiliative and self-enhancement is positive and beneficial to the organization through improved leader-member relations, while humorous behavior such as aggressive and self-defeating are negative and detrimental to group cohesiveness due to its demeaning and abusive character. Thus, we conclude that irrespective of the obvious dark side of managerial humor, when managers effectively adopt and apply the right humor in the right context, it create a platform for improved employee well-being and other organizational outcomes such engagement and commitment. Thus, we recommend as follows: i) that manager should always make use of positive humor as a means of communicating information that may be considered offensive to the employees. ii) that managers in order to keep their interpersonal relationships with followers on track should try as much as possible to avoid the use of negative humorous jokes.
Enhancing Library Services Delivery in the 21st Century in Africa: The Role of Cloud Technologies (Published)
The impact of technological advancements has been greatly felt in virtually every sphere of human society. Libraries are no exception to this trend and the need for libraries to embrace this change is pertinent to their survival. The new patronage of libraries and information centres are now more techno-savvy than the previous generation of library users. The preference for internet and web-based services has become more evident. Libraries and information centres now compete with rival agencies who provide similar and alternative services which have made users rely more on the alternatives provided by these agencies. With the changing information seeking behaviour of library patrons, libraries must consider alternative options to service delivery. The paper explores cloud services, the types and models, and the roles that cloud computing and technologies can play in enhancing library services in the 21st century. Cloud computing was x-rayed, the roles were discussed at item level, benefits of cloud to libraries, and the implication to libraries and library and information professionals for service delivery.
Strategizing For Effective Library Users Retention in a University System in 21st Century. Evidence from Federal University of Technology Owerri (Futo) (Published)
This paper is an attempt to study the strategies that leads to effective library users in Federal University of Technology, Owerri with a view to study the expectations of library users, modern infrastructural needs, retention strategies as well as try to bring to light the challenges that confronts the users and recommend some remedial measures for its improvement. Questionnaire was used for data collection, a reliability co-efficient of 0.75 was obtained. The study confirmed that the library needs to do well on some issues such as power supply, internet connectivity, subscription to open access database, etcetera for a very good user’s retention profile.
Social Studies teaching resources have improved overtime since its inception in the 1950s to address the social problems in Nigeria. Classroom activities which was formally centered on the use of blackboards and passed-on notebooks, have graduated to the use of computer based systems such as power points and projectors, e-book reader, to online schooling. This paper identified and discussed Social Studies Teaching Resources in the 21st Century. The paper looked briefly at the concept of Social Studies as an integrated field of study which focuses on man in his environments with view to sensitizing man with the symbiotic relationships between him and his environment. Also went further to discuss deeply on multimedia resources in the 21st century classroom known as iTunes-U which is the current developmental resources for educators to share and gain teaching resources on a global scale. To get access to primary resources and find inspiration for enhancing teaching and learning with technology, that can link social studies teachers to the internet, through the iBook store and App store that can enable social studies teachers to gather materials. This write up also looked at the meaning of instructional materials, types of instructional resources that can be used for the effective teaching Social Studies in the 21st Century
Transportation Model: A Qualitative Solution Tool for Achieving Institutional and Managerial Goals in the 21st Century (Published)
Managerial activities have become complex and it is necessary to make right decision in avoidance of heavy losses. Whether a manufacturing unit or service organization, the resources have to be utilized maximally in an efficient manner otherwise, the erratic future is clouded with uncertainty thus decision making – a crucial activity – cannot be made on a trial and error basis or by using a thumb rule approach. Today several scientific management techniques are available to solve managerial problems and use of these techniques helps managers become explicit about their objectives, providing additional information to select an optimal decision in the 21st century. The quantitative technique is a scientific approach to managerial decision making. The successful use of quantitative technique for management could help organizations in solving complex problems on time, with greater accuracy and in the most economical way. This work examined transportation model of quantitative techniques for management. The definition of the term management and transportation was reviewed, the role of quantitative analysis and method for solving problems in management identified, the model development and management science techniques itemized, basic feasible solutions for non-degeneracy model and transshipment model where the study saw Organization goals as an action that facilitate planning, motivate and inspire employees’ management as a process of getting things done through the efforts of other people and transportation model as the determinant for resource allocation in existing business structures. The work argued that, managers must be aware of the quantity of available supplies, the quantities demanded and location to find the cost of transporting one unit of commodity from place to another. Conclusions were drawn and recommendation made that the optimal solution to a transportation problems must consist of integer values for the decision variables as long as all supply and demand values are integers.
Management by Objective: A Top down Planning Technique for Effective Nigerian Secondary School Management In the 21st Century (Published)
Every organization operates on the basis of plan. The organization’s plan whether strategic, tactical or operational includes the overall set goals, types and levels of activities or services, the means of implementation and accountability process for definite periods. As the various factors of production cannot organize themselves to achieve these goals and functions, the need for managerial functions as a rallying point for organization of productive factors becomes imperative. Hence it is needful to ensure quantified improvement in efficiency and effectiveness in resourcing strategies over the conventional method. Management by Objective holds great potential as a management tool which is fast becoming useful in the education industry. It is just a process, but the rewards accruable to students and staff are commensurate with efforts of making it work in educational institutions. This paper examines the perception of school administrators on the relevance and benefits of Management by Objectives as a down planning technique for effective management of Nigeria secondary schools in the 21st century. The study was guided by three research questions and two null hypotheses. The descriptive survey design was adopted. A sample of 500 teachers and 20 principals were selected through random sampling technique from secondary schools in the (3) three educational zones (Umuahia, Aba and Ohafia) in Abia State, Nigeria. The study utilized a 20 item researcher developed questionnaire titled “Teachers Perception of MBO Planning Technique in Secondary Schools Questionnaire (TPMBOSSQ) and “Principals Perception of MBO Planning Technique in Secondary School Questionnaire (PPMBOSSQ) structured on 4-point likert type scale. Mean scores were used to answer the questions, while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient was used to test the null hypotheses upon confirmation of a reliability ratings of 0.82 and 0.85 obtained for TPMBOSSQ and PPMBOSSQ respectively. The findings of the study indicated that both teachers and principals were of the view that all the elements of MBO are relevant and beneficial in achieving continuous improvement in secondary school management. It was recommended among other things that principals across the three educational zones in Abia State should apply MBO for improved visible morals, delegation of decision-making as well as to aid the identification of more promotable people and also improvement of institutional image.