In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Effects of Subchronic Administration of Trichilia Emetica Leaves Extracts

Abstract

Objective: The leave extracts of Trichilia emetica were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice and chronic dose effects of the methanolic extract were also studied. Methods: The plant leaves were successively extracted into three (3) extract forms (Hexane, ethylacetate and methanolic extracts). Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 Chloroquine sensitive strain) was inoculated in to twenty mice assigned for 5 groups of 4 mice each. Group I, II and III were treated with 300mg/Kg bw hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts respectively. Group IV with 5mg/kg bw chloroquine phosphate (standard) and group V with 20ml/kg bw normal saline (control). Another set of 40 mice were divided into two groups of twenty each (test and control) and some serum parameters were studies. The test animals were gavaged with 300mg/kg bw extract while controls were given normal saline over a period of 5weeks on alternate days. Histology of the liver, and kidney were carried out. Results: The presence of alkaloids, saponins, pholobatannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds have been detected and quantified. T. emetica extracts of hexane and methanol suppressed parasitemia in mice by 79.19 % and 95.83%respectively while ethylacetate extract has no activity. The weight of the test group was on a continuous decrease compare to the control while the reverse was the case in terms of the PCV. Glucose, total proteins, triacylglycerides, ALT and ALP levels all decrease significantly compared to the control group. AST level of the test group was significantly higher compare to the control. Histology revealed no damage to the kidney and liver. Conclusion: Hexane and methanolic extracts of Trichilia emetica have strong efficacy against malaria and a possible mechanism for this efficacy is its ability to lyses erythrocytes.

Keywords: Plasmodium berghei, curative, phytochemicals, serum, spectrophotometer


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