Owing to the fact that hygiene of mothers and children has been a critical factor in combating diarrhea which has contributed to high mortality and morbidity in Enugu State, and the fact that perceptions of mothers on the hygiene factors affecting diarrhea occurrence determine their health behavior towards hygiene practices, there arises the need to analyze the perception of mothers on these hygiene factors in Enugu State. The methodology was longitudinal survey design. Schedules were used to collect data on diarrhea among children 0-5 years from seven District Hospitals representing District Health Boards from 2007 to 2016. Questionnaire was used to collect data on perceptions of mothers. A total of 1110 questionnaire were administered and 1106 collected. Analysis of variance ANOVA was conducted and the study found that the perceptions of mothers on hygiene factors affecting diarrhea occurrence differ significantly amongst the study locations (p = 0.000). Furthermore, using multiple comparison tests to detect and rank the mothers perception in the different study locations, Enugu District Health Board has the highest perception, followed by Agbani and Udi. Nsukka, Awgu, Isi-Uzo and Enugu-Ezike District Health Boards have low perceptions. Nsukka and Awgu recorded highest cases of diarrhea within the period under study. Education on high level of personal hygiene of mothers and children is recommended to reduce infant mortality and morbidity. Further study of stools of these children to identify the pathogens responsible for the diarrhea is required.
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