Sensor nodes close to the sinks will deplete their limited energy more rapidly than other sensors, since they will have more data to forward during multihop transmission. This will cause network partition, isolated nodes and much shortened network lifetime. Thus, how to balance energy consumption for sensor nodes is an important research issue. In recent years, exploiting sink mobility technology in WSNs has attracted much research attention because it can not only improve energy efficiency, but prolong network lifetime. In this paper, a modified Election based Protocol, which employs the decision of selecting cluster heads by the sink is based on the associated additional energy and residual energy at each node. Besides, the cluster head selects the shortest path to reach the sink between the direct approach and the indirect approach with the use of the congested link. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance than traditional routing algorithms, such as LEACH.
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