In developing countries such as Pakistan, atmospheric pollution has become a disaster. This study’s objective was to observe and evaluate the air quality in the 15-million-person combined population of the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The quantities of particulate pollution, as well as CO2, were measured in five different cities. There are now far too many types and sources of pollution from numerous air pollutants. However, due to an absence of management skills for air pollution, the world is currently facing diminishing air quality. The ecosystem, public health, and quality of life are all seriously threatened by air pollution, according to facts from multiple governmental organizations and foreign organizations. Through the Pakistan Environmental Protection Program, the Pakistani government has implemented important strides toward air quality management, including the establishment of few active monitoring stations. However, there are currently no standards for environmental protection. This paper examines the standards for air pollutants from observational studies. Five main air pollutants—NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and PM2—were taken into consideration. Our findings show that under the baseline scenario, Existing air pollution in Pakistan management efforts are inadequate to achieve the nation’s air quality criteria. By 2050, the percentage of deaths caused by PM2.5 will be 24% lower nationwide because of the implementation of sustainable development policies. Innovative standard precautions can improve Pakistan’s air quality and public health, but when associated with foreign long-term new developments, they can also lower greenhouse gas emissions (implementing SDG 13’s indicator on climate action) and save about a quarter of GDP (0.32% of GDP) on costs associated with emission control by 2050. It seems to have a substantial co-benefit in terms of cost (economic), health (social), and air pollution (environmental), suggesting that Pakistani public policy should consider a co-control at a low cost of greenhouse gases and air pollution in the future.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Environment, asthma, carbon footprint, clean water, greenhouse gas emissions, health. air quality, public health, smoke
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